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----------Suprane (Desflurane, USP) Liquid for Inhalation 240 mL Bottle
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP), a nonflammable liquid administered via vaporizer, is a general inhalation anesthetic. It is (±)1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether:
Some physical constants are:
Mean Component/Gas Partition Coefficients:
Desflurane is a colorless, volatile liquid below 22.8°C. Data indicate that desflurane is stable when stored under normal room lighting conditions according to instructions.
Desflurane is chemically stable. The only known degradation reaction is through prolonged direct contact with soda lime producing low levels of fluoroform (CHF3). The amount of CHF3 obtained is similar to that produced with MAC-equivalent doses of isoflurane.
No discernible degradation occurs in the presence of strong acids.
Desflurane does not corrode stainless steel, brass, aluminum, anodized aluminum, nickel plated brass, copper, or beryllium.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is a volatile liquid inhalation anesthetic minimally biotransformed in the liver in humans. Less than 0.02% of the SUPRANE absorbed can be recovered as urinary metabolites (compared to 0.2% for isoflurane). Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of desflurane in oxygen for a 25 year-old adult is 7.3%. The MAC of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) decreases with increasing age and with addition of depressants such as opioids or benzodiazepines (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for details).
In 88 unpremedicated outpatients, anesthesia was initiated with thiopental 3-9 mg/kg or desflurane in O2. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane 0.7-1.4% in N2O 60%, desflurane 1.8-7.7% in N2O 60%, or desflurane 4.4-11.9% in O2. EMERGENCE AND RECOVERY TIMES IN OUTPATIENT SURGERY 46 MALES, 42 FEMALES, AGES 19-70 TIMES IN MINUTES: MEAN ± SD (RANGE)
*Differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) by Dunnett’s procedure comparing all treatments to the thiopental-isoflurane/N2O (induction and maintenance) group. Results for comparisons greater than one hour after anesthesia show no differences between groups and considerable variability within groups.
Recovery from anesthesia was assessed at 30, 60, and 90 minutes following 0.5 MAC desflurane (3%) or isoflurane (0.6%) in N2O 60% using subjective and objective tests. At 30 minutes after anesthesia, only 43% of the isoflurane group were able to perform the psychometric tests compared to 76% in the desflurane group (p less than 0.05).
RECOVERY TESTS: PERCENT OF PREOPERATIVE BASELINE VALUES 16 MALES, 22 FEMALES, AGES 20-65 PERCENT: MEAN ± SD
+ DSST = Digit Symbol Substitution Test
++ Trieger Test = Dot Connecting Test
* Differences were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) using a two-sample t-test
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) was studied in twelve volunteers receiving no other drugs. Hemodynamic effects during controlled ventilation (PaCO2 38mm Hg) were:
HEMODYNAMIC EFFECTS OF DESFLURANE DURING CONTROLLED VENTILATION 12 MALE VOLUNTEERS, AGES 16-26 MEAN ± SD (RANGE)
When the same volunteers breathed spontaneously during desflurane anesthesia, systemic vascular resistance and mean arterial blood pressure decreased; cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, and central venous pressure (CVP) increased compared to values when the volunteers were conscious. Cardiac index, stroke volume, and CVP were greater during spontaneousventilation than during controlled ventilation.
During spontaneous ventilation in the same volunteers, increasing the concentration of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) from 3% to 12% decreased tidal volume and increased arterial carbon dioxide tension and respiratory rate. The combination of N2O 60% with a given concentration of desflurane gave results similar to those with desflurane alone. Respiratory depression produced by desflurane is similar to that produced by other potent inhalation agents. The use of desflurane concentrations higher than 1.5 MAC may produce apnea.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) was evaluated in 1,843 patients including ambulatory (N=1,061), cardiovascular (N=277), geriatric (N=103), neurosurgical (N=40), and pediatric (N=235) patients. Clinical experience with these patients and with 1,087 control patients in these studies not receiving desflurane are described below. Although desflurane can be used in adults for the inhalation induction of anesthesia via mask, it produces a high incidence of respiratory irritation (coughing, breathholding, apnea, increased secretions, laryngospasm). For incidence, see ADVERSE REACTIONS. Oxyhemoglobin saturation below 90% occurred in 6% of patients (from pooled data, N = 370 adults).
Maintenance and Recovery
In one outpatient study, patients received a standardized anesthetic consisting of thiopental 4.2-4.4 mg/kg, fentanyl 3.5-4.0 μg/kg, vecuronium 0.05-0.07 mg/kg, and N2O 60% in oxygen with either desflurane 3% or isoflurane 0.6%. Emergence times were significantly different; but times to sit up and discharge were not different (see Table).
RECOVERY PROFILES AFTER DESFLURANE 3% IN N2O 60% vs ISOFLURANE 0.6% IN N2O 60% IN OUTPATIENTS 16 MALES, 22 FEMALES, AGES 20-65 MEAN ± SD
Desflurane was compared to isoflurane, sufentanil or fentanyl for the anesthetic management of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral vascular and carotid endarterectomy surgery in 7 studies at 15 centers involving a total of 558 patients. In all patients except the desflurane vs sufentanil study, the volatile anesthetics were supplemented with intravenous opioids, usually fentanyl. Blood pressure and heart rate were controlled by changes in concentration of the volatile anesthetics or opioids and cardiovascular drugs if necessary. Oxygen (100%) was the carrier gas in 253 of 277 desflurane cases (24 of 277 received N2O/O2).
CARDIOVASCULAR PATIENTS BY AGENT AND TYPE OF SURGERY 418 MALES, 140 FEMALES, AGES 27-87 (MEDIAN 64)
Desflurane should not be used as the sole agent for anesthetic induction in patients with coronary artery disease or any patients where increases in heart rate or blood pressure are undesirable. In the desflurane vs sufentanil study, anesthetic induction with desflurane without opioids was associated with new transient ischemia in 14 patients vs 0 in the sufentanil group. In the desflurane group, mean heart rate, arterial pressure, and pulmonary blood pressure increased and stroke volume decreased in contrast to no change in the sufentanil group. Cardiovascular drugs were used frequently in both groups: especially esmolol in the desflurane group (56% vs 0%) and phenylephrine in the sufentanil group (43% vs 27%). When 10 μg/kg of fentanyl was used to supplement induction of anesthesia at one other center, continuous 2-lead ECG analysis showed a low incidence of myocardial ischemia and no difference between desflurane and isoflurane. If desflurane is to be used in patients with coronary artery disease, it should be used in combination with other medications for induction of anesthesia, preferably intravenous opioids and hypnotics.
Maintenance and Recovery
In studies where desflurane or isoflurane anesthesia was supplemented with fentanyl, there were no differences in hemodynamic variables or the incidence of myocardial ischemia in the patients anesthetized with desflurane compared to those anesthetized with isoflurane.During the precardiopulmonary bypass period, in the desflurane vs sufentanil study where the desflurane patients received no intravenous opioid, more desflurane patients required cardiovascular adjuvants to control hemodynamics than the sufentanil patients. During this period, the incidence of ischemia detected by ECG or echocardiography was not statistically different between desflurane (18 of 99) and sufentanil (9 of 98) groups. However, the duration and severity of ECG-detected myocardial ischemia was significantly less in the desflurane group. The incidence of myocardial ischemia after cardiopulmonary bypass and in the ICU did not differ between groups.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) plus N2O was compared to isoflurane plus N2O in a multicenter study (6 sites) of 203 ASA physical status II or III elderly patients, aged 57-91 years (median 71).
Most patients were premedicated with fentanyl (mean 2 μg/kg), preoxygenated, and received thiopental (mean 4.3 mg/kg IV) or thiamylal (mean 4 mg/kg IV) followed by succinylcholine (mean 1.4 mg/kg IV) for intubation.
Maintenance and Recovery
Heart rate and arterial blood pressure remained within 20% of preinduction baseline values during administration of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) 0.5-7.7% (average 3.6%) with 50-60% N2O. Induction, maintenance, and recovery cardiovascular measurements did not differ from those during isoflurane/N2O administration nor did the postoperative incidence of nausea and vomiting differ. The most common cardiovascular adverse event was hypotension occurring in 8% of the SUPRANE patients and 6% of the isoflurane patients.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) was studied in 38 patients aged 26-76 years (median 48 years), ASA physical status II or III undergoing neurosurgical procedures for intracranial lesions.
Induction consisted of standard neuroanesthetic techniques including hyperventilation and thiopental.
No change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) was observed in 8 patients who had intracranial tumors when the dose of desflurane was 0.5 MAC in N2O 50%. In another study of 9 patients with intracranial tumors, 0.8 MAC desflurane/air/O2 did not increase CSFP above postinduction baseline values. In a different study of 10 patients receiving 1.1 MAC desflurane/air/O2, CSFP increased 7 mm Hg (range 3-13 mm Hg increase, with final values of 11-26 mm Hg) above the predrug values. All volatile anesthetics may increase intracranial pressure in patients with intracranial space occupying lesions. In such patients, desflurane should be administered at 0.8 MAC or less, and in conjunction with a barbiturate induction and hyperventilation (hypocapnia) in the period before cranial decompression. Appropriate attention must be paid to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure. The use of a lower dose of desflurane and the administration of a barbiturate and mannitol would be predicted to lessen the effect of desflurane on CSFP. Under hypocapnic conditions (PaCO2 27 mm Hg) desflurane 1 and 1.5 MAC did not increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 9 patients undergoing craniotomies. CBF reactivity to increasing PaCO2 from 27 to 35 mm Hg was also maintained at 1.25 MAC desflurane/air/
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is not recommended for induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients because of the high incidence of moderate to severe upper airway adverse reactions, including laryngospasm, coughing, breathholding, and secretions, seen in studies of induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients. (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS – Pediatric Use).
SUPRANE is not approved for maintenance of anesthesia in non-intubated pediatric patients due to an increased incidence of respiratory adverse reactions, including coughing, laryngospasm and secretions, seen in one study of maintenance of anesthesia in non-intubated pediatric patients. (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS – Pediatric Use).
Maintenance and Recovery in Intubated Pediatric Patients
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is approved for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children after induction of anesthesia with agents other than SUPRANE, and tracheal intubation.
SUPRANE, with or without N2O, and halothane, with or without N2O were studied in three clinical trials of pediatric patients aged 2 weeks to 12 years (median 2 years) and ASA physical status I or II. The concentration of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) required for maintenance of general anesthesia is age-dependent (see INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSE). Changes in blood pressure during maintenance of and recovery from anesthesia with desflurane/N2O/O2 are similar to those observed with halothane/N2O/O2. Heart rate during maintenance of anesthesia is approximately 10 beats per minute faster with desflurane than with halothane. Patients were judged fit for discharge from post-anesthesia care units within one hour with both desflurane and
halothane. There were no differences in the incidence of nausea and vomiting between patients receiving desflurane or halothane.
INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSE
(Also see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION)
Issues such as whether or not to premedicate and the choice of premedicant(s) must be individualized. In clinical trials, patients scheduled to be anesthetized with desflurane frequently received IV pre-anesthetic medication, such as opioid and/or benzodiazepine.
In adults, some premedicated with opioid, a frequent starting concentration was 3% desflurane, increased in 0.5-1.0% increments every 2 to 3 breaths. End-tidal concentrations of 4-11% SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) with and without N2O, produced anesthesia within 2 to 4 minutes. When desflurane was tested as the primary anesthetic induction agent, the incidence of upper airway irritation (apnea, breathholding, laryngospasm, coughing and secretions) was high (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). During induction in adults, the overall incidence of oxyhemoglobin desaturation (SpO2 less than 90%) was 6%.
After induction in adults with an intravenous drug such as thiopental or propofol, desflurane can be started at approximately 0.5-1 MAC, whether the carrier gas is O2 or N2O/O2.
Surgical levels of anesthesia in adults may be maintained with concentrations of 2.5-8.5% SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) with or without the concomitant use of nitrous oxide. In children, surgical levels of anesthesia may be maintained with concentrations of 5.2-10% SUPRANE with or without the concomitant use of nitrous oxide.
During the maintenance of anesthesia, increasing concentrations of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) produce dose-dependent decreases in blood pressure. Excessive decreases in blood pressure may be due to depth of anesthesia and in such instances may be corrected by decreasing the inspired concentration of SUPRANE.
Concentrations of desflurane exceeding 1 MAC may increase heart rate. Thus with this drug, an increased heart rate may not serve reliably as a sign of inadequate anesthesia. SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) decreases the doses of neuromuscular blocking agents required (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Indications and Usage
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is indicated as an inhalation agent for induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults (see PRECAUTIONS). SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is not recommended for induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients because of a high incidence of moderate to severe upper airway adverse events (see WARNINGS). After induction of anesthesia with agents other than SUPRANE, and tracheal intubation, SUPRANE is indicated for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) should not be used in patients with a known or suspected genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia.
Respiratory Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients
Administration of Suprane
During the maintenance of anesthesia, increasing concentrations of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) produce dose-dependent decreases in blood pressure. Excessive decreases in blood pressure may be related to depth of anesthesia and in such instances may be corrected by decreasing the inspired concentration of SUPRANE. Concentrations of desflurane exceeding 1 MAC may increase heart rate. Thus an increased heart rate may not be a sign of inadequate anesthesia. In patients with intracranial space occupying lesions, SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) should be administered at 0.8 MAC or less, in conjunction with a barbiturate induction and hyperventilation (hypocapnia). Appropriate measures should be taken to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Neurosurgery). In patients with coronary artery disease, maintenance of normal hemodynamics is important to the avoidance of myocardial ischemia. Desflurane should not be used as the sole agent for anesthetic induction in patients with coronary artery disease or patients where increases in heart rate or blood pressure are undesirable. It should be used with other medications, preferably intravenous opioids and hypnotics (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Cardiovascular Surgery). Inspired concentrations of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) greater than 12% have been safely administered to patients, particularly during induction of anesthesia. Such concentrations will proportionately dilute the concentration of oxygen; therefore, maintenance of an adequate concentration of oxygen may require a reduction of nitrous oxide or air if these gases are used concurrently. The recovery from general anesthesia should be assessed carefully before patients are discharged from the post anesthesia care unit (PACU). SUPRANE (desflurane, USP), like some other inhalational anesthetics, can react with desiccated carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents to produce carbon monoxide which may result in elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin in some patients. Case reports suggest that barium hydroxide lime and soda lime become desiccated when fresh gases are passed through the CO2 absorber cannister at high flow rates over many hours or days. When a clinician suspects that CO2 absorbent may be desiccated, it should be replaced before the administration of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP). As with other halogenated anesthetic agents, SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) may cause sensitivity hepatitis in patients who have been sensitized by previous exposure to halogenated anesthetics (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
DOSAGE OF MUSCLE RELAXANT CAUSING 95% DEPRESSION IN NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE
Among nondepolarizing drugs, only pancuronium and atracurium interactions have been studied. In the absence of specific guidelines:
1. For endotracheal intubation, do not reduce the dose of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants or succinylcholine.
2. During maintenance of anesthesia, the dose of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants is likely to be reduced compared to that during N2O/opioid anesthesia. Administration of supplemental doses of muscle relaxants should be guided by the response to nerve stimulation.
Renal or Hepatic Insufficiency
Nine patients receiving SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) (N=9) were compared to 9 patients receiving isoflurane, all with chronic renal insufficiency (serum creatinine 1.5-6.9 mg/dL). No differences in hematological or biochemical tests, including renal function evaluation, were seen between the two groups. Similarly, no differences were found in a comparison of patients receiving either SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) (N=28) or isoflurane (N=30) undergoing renal transplant. Eight patients receiving SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) were compared to six patients receiving isoflurane, all with chronic hepatic disease (viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, or cirrhosis). No differences in hematological or biochemical tests, including hepatic enzymes and hepatic function evaluation, were seen.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Animal carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with SUPRANE (desflurane, USP). In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies did not demonstrate mutagenicity or chromosomal damage by SUPRANE. Tests for genotoxicity included the Ames mutation assay, the metaphase analysis of human lymphocytes, and the mouse micronucleus assay. Fertility was not affected after 1 MAC-Hour per day exposure (cumulative 63 and 14 MAC-Hours for males and females, respectively). At higher doses, parental toxicity (mortalities and reduced weight gain) was observed which could affect fertility.
No teratogenic effect was observed at approximately 10 and 13 cumulative MAC-Hour exposures at 1 MAC-Hour per day during organogenesis in rats or rabbits. At higher doses increased incidences of post-implantation loss and maternal toxicity were observed. However, at 10 MAC-Hours cumulative exposure in rats, about 6% decrease in the weight of male pups was observed at preterm caesarean delivery.
Pregnancy Category B
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Rats exposed to desflurane at 1 MAC-Hour per day from gestation day 15 to lactation day 21, did not show signs of dystocia. Body weight of pups delivered by these dams at birth and during lactation were comparable to that of control pups. No treatment related behavioral changes were reported in these pups during lactation.
Labor and Delivery
The safety of desflurane during labor or delivery has not been demonstrated.
The concentrations of desflurane in milk are probably of no clinical importance 24 hours after anesthesia. Because of rapid washout, desflurane concentrations in milk are predicted to be below those found with other volatile potent anesthetics.
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) is approved for maintenance of anesthesia in infants and children after induction of anesthesia with agents other than SUPRANE, and tracheal intubation.
SUPRANE is not recommended for induction of general anesthesia via mask in children because of the high incidence of moderate to severe respiratory adverse reactions, including laryngospasm (50%), coughing (72%), breathholding (68%), increase in secretions (21%) and oxyhemoglobin desaturation (SpO2 less than 90%) (26%) seen in clinical studies. SUPRANE is not approved for maintenance of anesthesia in non-intubated children due to an increased incidence of respiratory adverse reactions (see below). In a clinical safety trial conducted in children aged 2 to 16 years (mean 7.4 years), following induction with another agent, SUPRANE and isoflurane (in N2O/O2) were compared when delivered via face mask or laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for maintenance of anesthesia, after induction with intravenous propofol or inhaled sevoflurane, in order to assess the relative incidence of respiratory adverse events.
MAINTENANCE IN NONINTUBATED PEDIATRIC PATIENTS(FACE MASK OR LMA USED; N=300) All Respiratory Events* (greater than 1% of All Pediatric Patients)
SUPRANE was associated with higher rates (compared with isoflurane) of coughing, laryngospasm and secretions with an overall rate of respiratory events of 39%. Of the pediatric patients exposed to desflurane, 5% experienced severe laryngospasm (associated with significant desaturation; i.e. SpO2 of less than 90% for greater than 15 seconds, or requiring succinylcholine), across all ages, 2-16 years old. Individual age group incidences of severe laryngospasm were 9% for 2-6 years old, 1% for 7-11 years old, and 1% for 12-16 years old. Removal of LMA under deep anesthesia (MAC range 0.6 – 2.3 with a mean of 1.12 MAC) was associated with a further increase in frequency of respiratory adverse events as compared to awake LMA removal or LMA removal under deep anesthesia with the comparator. The frequency and severity of non-respiratory adverse events were comparable between the two groups. The incidence of respiratory events under these conditions was highest in children aged 2-6 years. Therefore, similar studies in children under the age of 2 years were not initiated.
The average MAC for SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) in a 70 year old patient is two-thirds the MAC for a 20 year old patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) may produce a dose-dependent increase in cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) when administered to patients with intracranial space occupying lesions. Desflurane should be administered at 0.8 MAC or less, and in conjunction with a barbiturate induction and hyperventilation (hypocapnia) until cerebral decompression in patients with known or suspected increases in CSFP. Appropriate attention must be paid to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Neurosurgery).
Adverse event information is derived from controlled clinical trials, the majority of which were conducted in the United States. The studies were conducted using a variety of premedications, other anesthetics, and surgical procedures of varying length. Most adverse events reported were mild and transient, and may reflect the surgical procedures, patient characteristics (including disease) and/or medications administered. Of the 2,143 patients exposed to SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) in clinical trials, 370 adults and 152 children were induced with desflurane alone and 987 patients were maintained principally with desflurane. The frequencies given reflect the percent of patients with the event. Each patient was counted once for each type of adverse event. They are presented in alphabetical order according to body system.
Frequency of Events Occurring in Greater Than 1% of Clinical Trial Patients (in Reports Deemed “Probably Causally Related”)
Induction (use as a mask inhalation agent)
ADULT AND INTUBATED PEDIATRIC PATIENTS (N=687):
Adverse reactions reported only from postmarketing experience or in the literature, not seen in clinical trials, are considered rare and are italicized.
Reported in 3 or more patients, regardless of severity
Post Marketing Reports
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC SYSTEM DISORDERS: Coagulopathy
METABOLISM AND NUTRITION DISORDERS: Hyperkalemia, Hypokalemia, Metabolic acidosis
NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS: Convulsion
EYE DISORDERS: Ocular icterus
CARDIAC DISORDERS: Cardiac arrest, Torsade de pointes, Ventricular failure, Ventricular hypokinesia
VASCULAR DISORDERS: Malignant hypertension, Hemorrhage, Hypotension, Shock
RESPIRATORY, THORACIC AND MEDIASTINAL DISORDERS: Respiratory arrest, Respiratory failure, Respiratory distress, Bronchospasm, Hemoptysis
GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS: Pancreatitis acute, Abdominal pain
HEPATOBILIARY DISORDERS: Hepatic failure, Hepatic necrosis, Cytolytic hepatitis, Cholestasis, Jaundice, Hepatic function abnormal, Liver disorder
SKIN AND SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE DISORDER: Urticaria, Erythema,
MUSCULOSKELETAL, CONNECTIVE TISSUE, AND BONE DISORDERS: Rhabdomyolysis
GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS: Hyperthermia malignant, Asthenia, Malaise
INVESTIGATIONS: Tranaminases increased, Alanine aminotransferase increased, Aspartate aminotransferase increased, Coagulation test abnormal, Ammonia increased
INJURY, POISONING, AND PROCEDURAL COMPLICATIONS*: Tachyarrhythmia, Palpitations, Eye burns, Blindness transient, Encephalopathy, Ulcerative keratitis, Ocular hyperemia, Visual acuity reduced, Eye irritation, Eye pain, Dizziness, Migraine, Fatigue, Accidental exposure, Skin burning sensation, Drug administration error
*All of reactions categorized within this SOC were accidental exposures to non-patients.
Transient elevations in glucose and white blood cell count may occur as with use of other anesthetic agents.
Drug Abuse and Dependence
The potential drug abuse liability, and dependence associated with SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) have not been studied.
In the event of overdosage, or suspected overdosage, take the following actions: discontinue administration of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP), maintain a patent airway, initiate assisted or controlled ventilation with oxygen, and maintain adequate cardiovascular function.
Dosage and Administration
Deliver SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) from a vaporizer specifically designed and designated for use with desflurane. The administration of general anesthesia must be individualized based on the patient’s response (see INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSE). The following two tables provide mean relative potency based upon age and drug interaction studies in predominately ASA physical status I or II patients.
EFFECT OF AGE ON MAC OF DESFLURANE MEAN ± SD (percent atmospheres)
Opioids or benzodiazepines decrease the amounts of SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) required to produce anesthesia. The following table is based on studies of drug interaction (MAC reduction).
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP) MAC WITH FENTANYL OR MIDAZOLAM MEAN ± SD (percent reduction)
During the maintenance of anesthesia with inflow rates of 2 L/min or more, the alveolar concentration of desflurane will usually be within 10% of the inspired concentration. (FA/FI, see Figure 1 in Pharmacokinetics section.)
SUPRANE (desflurane, USP), NDC 10019-641-24, is packaged in amber-colored bottles containing 240 mL desflurane.
Baxter and SUPRANE are trademarks of Baxter International Inc.
For Product Inquiry 1 800 ANA DRUG (1-800-262-3784)
Revised: 04/2011 General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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