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FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
SPRYCEL® (dasatinib) is indicated for the treatment of adults with
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended starting dosage of SPRYCEL for chronic phase CML is 100 mg administered orally once daily. The recommended starting dosage of SPRYCEL for accelerated phase CML, myeloid or lymphoid blast phase CML, or Ph+ ALL is 140 mg administered orally once daily. Tablets should not be crushed or cut; they should be swallowed whole. SPRYCEL can be taken with or without a meal, either in the morning or in the evening.
In clinical studies, treatment with SPRYCEL was continued until disease progression or until no longer tolerated by the patient. The effect of stopping treatment after the achievement of a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) has not been investigated.
2.1 Dose Modification
Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 inducers: The use of concomitant strong CYP3A4 inducers may decrease dasatinib plasma concentrations and should be avoided (eg, dexamethasone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin, rifabutin, phenobarbital). St. John's Wort may decrease dasatinib plasma concentrations unpredictably and should be avoided. If patients must be coadministered a strong CYP3A4 inducer, based on pharmacokinetic studies, a SPRYCEL dose increase should be considered. If the dose of SPRYCEL is increased, the patient should be monitored carefully for toxicity [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 inhibitors: CYP3A4 inhibitors (eg, ketoconazole, itraconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, and voriconazole) may increase dasatinib plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice may also increase plasma concentrations of dasatinib and should be avoided.
Selection of an alternate concomitant medication with no or minimal enzyme inhibition potential, if possible, is recommended. If SPRYCEL must be administered with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, a dose decrease should be considered. Based on pharmacokinetic studies, a dose decrease to 20 mg daily should be considered for patients taking SPRYCEL 100 mg daily. For patients taking SPRYCEL 140 mg daily, a dose decrease to 40 mg daily should be considered. These reduced doses of SPRYCEL are predicted to adjust the area under the curve (AUC) to the range observed without CYP3A4 inhibitors. However, there are no clinical data with these dose adjustments in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If SPRYCEL is not tolerated after dose reduction, either the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor must be discontinued, or SPRYCEL should be stopped until treatment with the inhibitor has ceased. When the strong inhibitor is discontinued, a washout period of approximately 1 week should be allowed before the SPRYCEL dose is increased. [See Drug Interactions (7.1).]
2.2 Dose Escalation
In clinical studies of adult CML and Ph+ ALL patients, dose escalation to 140 mg once daily (chronic phase CML) or 180 mg once daily (advanced phase CML and Ph+ ALL) was allowed in patients who did not achieve a hematologic or cytogenetic response at the recommended starting dosage.
2.3 Dose Adjustment for Adverse Reactions
In clinical studies, myelosuppression was managed by dose interruption, dose reduction, or discontinuation of study therapy. Hematopoietic growth factor has been used in patients with resistant myelosuppression. Guidelines for dose modifications are summarized in Table 1.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
SPRYCEL (dasatinib) Tablets are available as 20-mg, 50-mg, 70-mg, 80-mg, 100-mg, and 140-mg white to off-white, biconvex, film-coated tablets. [See How Supplied (16.1).]
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Treatment with SPRYCEL is associated with severe (NCI CTC Grade 3 or 4) thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and anemia. Their occurrence is more frequent in patients with advanced phase CML or Ph+ ALL than in chronic phase CML. In a dose optimization study in patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy and chronic phase CML, Grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression was reported less frequently in patients treated with 100 mg once daily than in patients treated with other dosing regimens.
Perform complete blood counts weekly for the first 2 months and then monthly thereafter, or as clinically indicated. Myelosuppression was generally reversible and usually managed by withholding SPRYCEL temporarily or dose reduction [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
5.2 Bleeding Related Events
In addition to causing thrombocytopenia in human subjects, dasatinib caused platelet dysfunction in vitro. In all clinical studies, severe central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhages, including fatalities, occurred in 1% of patients receiving SPRYCEL. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, including fatalities, occurred in 4% of patients and generally required treatment interruptions and transfusions. Other cases of severe hemorrhage occurred in 2% of patients. Most bleeding events were associated with severe thrombocytopenia.
Patients were excluded from participation in initial SPRYCEL clinical studies if they took medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants. In subsequent trials, the use of anticoagulants, aspirin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was allowed concurrently with SPRYCEL if the platelet count was >50,000–75,000 per microliter. Exercise caution if patients are required to take medications that inhibit platelet function or anticoagulants.
5.3 Fluid Retention
SPRYCEL is associated with fluid retention. In clinical trials, severe fluid retention was reported in up to 10% of patients. Ascites and generalized edema were each reported in <1% of patients. Severe pulmonary edema was reported in 1% of patients. Patients who develop symptoms suggestive of pleural effusion such as dyspnea or dry cough should be evaluated by chest X-ray. Severe pleural effusion may require thoracentesis and oxygen therapy. Fluid retention events were typically managed by supportive care measures that include diuretics or short courses of steroids. In dose-optimization studies, fluid retention events were reported less frequently with once daily dosing than with other dosing regimens.
5.4 QT Prolongation
In vitro data suggest that dasatinib has the potential to prolong cardiac ventricular repolarization (QT interval). Of the 2440 patients with CML treated with SPRYCEL in clinical studies, 15 patients (<1%) had QTc prolongation reported as an adverse reaction. Twenty-two patients (1%) experienced a QTcF >500 ms. In 865 patients with leukemia treated with SPRYCEL in five Phase 2 single-arm studies, the maximum mean changes in QTcF (90% upper bound CI) from baseline ranged from 7.0 ms to 13.4 ms.
Administer SPRYCEL with caution to patients who have or may develop prolongation of QTc. These include patients with hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia, patients with congenital long QT syndrome, patients taking anti-arrhythmic medicines or other medicinal products that lead to QT prolongation, and cumulative high-dose anthracycline therapy. Correct hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia prior to SPRYCEL administration.
5.5 Congestive Heart Failure, Left Ventricular Dysfunction, and Myocardial Infarction
Cardiac adverse reactions were reported in 5.8% of 258 patients taking SPRYCEL, including 1.6% of patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure congestive, diastolic dysfunction, fatal myocardial infarction, and left ventricular dysfunction. Monitor patients for signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac dysfunction and treat appropriately.
5.6 Use in Pregnancy
Pregnancy Category D
SPRYCEL may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In nonclinical studies, at plasma concentrations below those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses of dasatinib, embryo-fetal toxicities, including skeletal malformations, were observed in rats and rabbits. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of SPRYCEL in pregnant women. Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while receiving treatment with SPRYCEL [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The data described below reflect exposure to SPRYCEL in clinical studies including 258 patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML and in 2182 patients with imatinib resistant or intolerant CML or Ph+ ALL.
In the newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial, the median duration of therapy was 18 months; the median average daily dose was 99 mg.
In the imatinib resistant or intolerant CML or Ph+ ALL clinical trials, patients had a minimum of 2 years follow-up (starting dosage 100 mg once daily, 140 mg once daily, 50 mg twice daily, or 70 mg twice daily). Among patients with chronic phase CML and resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy, the median duration of treatment with SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily was 24 months (range 1–33 months). The median duration of treatment with SPRYCEL 140 mg once daily was 15 months (range 0.03–36 months) for accelerated phase CML, 3 months (range 0.03–29 months) for myeloid blast phase CML, and 3 months (range 0.1–10 months) for lymphoid blast CML.
The majority of SPRYCEL-treated patients experienced adverse reactions at some time. In the newly diagnosed chronic phase CML trial, drug was discontinued for adverse reactions in 6% of SPRYCEL-treated patients. Among patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy, the rates of discontinuation for adverse reaction were 15% in chronic phase CML, 16% in accelerated phase CML, 15% in myeloid blast phase CML, 8% in lymphoid blast phase CML, and 8% in Ph+ ALL. In a dose-optimization study in patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy and chronic phase CML, the rate of discontinuation for adverse reaction was lower in patients treated with 100 mg once daily than in patients treated with other dosing regimens (10% and 16%, respectively).
The most frequently reported adverse reactions reported in ≥10% of patients in newly diagnosed chronic phase CML included myelosuppression, fluid retention events (pleural effusion, superficial localized edema, generalized edema), diarrhea, headache, musculoskeletal pain, and rash. Pleural effusions were reported in 31 patients (see Table 2).
The most frequently reported adverse reactions reported in ≥20% of patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy included myelosuppression, fluid retention events, diarrhea, headache, dyspnea, skin rash, fatigue, nausea, and hemorrhage.
The most frequently reported serious adverse reactions in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML included pleural effusion (2%), hemorrhage (2%), congestive heart failure (1%), and pyrexia (1%). The most frequently reported serious adverse reactions in patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy included pleural effusion (11%), gastrointestinal bleeding (4%), febrile neutropenia (4%), dyspnea (3%), pneumonia (3%), pyrexia (3%), diarrhea (3%), infection (2%), congestive heart failure/cardiac dysfunction (2%), pericardial effusion (1%), and CNS hemorrhage (1%).
6.1 Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)
Adverse reactions (excluding laboratory abnormalities) that were reported in at least 10% of patients are shown in Table 2 for newly diagnosed patients with chronic phase CML and Table 3 for CML patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy.
Myelosuppression was commonly reported in all patient populations. The frequency of Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was higher in patients with advanced phase CML than in chronic phase CML (Tables 4 and 5). Myelosuppression was reported in patients with normal baseline laboratory values as well as in patients with pre-existing laboratory abnormalities.
In patients who experienced severe myelosuppression, recovery generally occurred following dose interruption or reduction; permanent discontinuation of treatment occurred in 2% of patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML and 5% of patients with resistance or intolerance to prior imatinib therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Grade 3 or 4 elevations of transaminase or bilirubin and Grade 3 or 4 hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia were reported in patients with all phases of CML but were reported with an increased frequency in patients with myeloid or lymphoid blast phase CML. Elevations in transaminase or bilirubin were usually managed with dose reduction or interruption. Patients developing Grade 3 or 4 hypocalcemia during the course of SPRYCEL therapy often had recovery with oral calcium supplementation.
Laboratory abnormalities reported in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML are shown in Table 4. There were no discontinuations of SPRYCEL therapy in this patient population due to biochemical laboratory parameters.
Laboratory abnormalities reported in patients with CML resistant or intolerant to imatinib who received the recommended starting doses of SPRYCEL are shown by disease phase in Table 5.
6.2 Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Ph+ ALL)
A total of 135 patients with Ph+ ALL were treated with SPRYCEL in clinical studies. The median duration of treatment was 3 months (range 0.03–31 months). The safety profile of patients with Ph+ ALL was similar to those with lymphoid blast phase CML. The most frequently reported adverse reactions included fluid retention events such as pleural effusion (24%) and superficial edema (19%), and gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea (31%), nausea (24%), and vomiting (16%). Hemorrhage (19%), pyrexia (17%), rash (16%), and dyspnea (16%) were also frequently reported. The most frequently reported serious adverse reactions included pleural effusion (11%), gastrointestinal bleeding (7%), febrile neutropenia (6%), infection (5%), pyrexia (4%), pneumonia (3%), diarrhea (3%), nausea (2%), vomiting (2%), and colitis (2%).
6.3 Additional Data From Clinical Trials
The following adverse reactions were reported in patients in the SPRYCEL clinical studies at a frequency of 1%–<10%, 0.1%–<1%, or <0.1%. These events are included on the basis of clinical relevance.
Gastrointestinal Disorders: 1%–<10% – mucosal inflammation (including mucositis/stomatitis), dyspepsia, abdominal distension, constipation, gastritis, colitis (including neutropenic colitis), oral soft tissue disorder; 0.1%–<1% – ascites, dysphagia, anal fissure, upper gastrointestinal ulcer, esophagitis, pancreatitis; <0.1% – protein losing gastroenteropathy.
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: 1%–<10% – asthenia, pain, chest pain, chills; 0.1%–<1% – malaise, temperature intolerance.
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: 1%–<10% – pruritus, alopecia, acne, dry skin, hyperhidrosis, urticaria, dermatitis (including eczema); 0.1%–<1% – pigmentation disorder, skin ulcer, bullous conditions, photosensitivity, nail disorder, acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, panniculitis, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome.
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: 1%–<10% – cough, lung infiltration, pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension; 0.1%–<1% – asthma, bronchospasm; <0.1% – acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Nervous System Disorders: 1%–<10% – neuropathy (including peripheral neuropathy), dizziness, dysgeusia, somnolence; 0.1%–<1% – amnesia, tremor, syncope; <0.1% – convulsion, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack, optic neuritis.
Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: 1%–<10% – pancytopenia; <0.1% – aplasia pure red cell.
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: 1%–<10% – muscular weakness; 0.1%–<1% – musculoskeletal stiffness, rhabdomyolysis; <0.1% – tendonitis.
Investigations: 1%–<10% – weight increased, weight decreased; 0.1%–<1% – blood creatine phosphokinase increased.
Infections and Infestations: 1%–<10% – pneumonia (including bacterial, viral, and fungal), upper respiratory tract infection/inflammation, herpes virus infection, enterocolitis infection; 0.1%–<1% – sepsis (including fatal outcomes).
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: 1%–<10% – anorexia, appetite disturbances; 0.1%–<1% – hyperuricemia, hypoalbuminemia.
Cardiac Disorders: 1%–<10% – arrhythmia (including tachycardia), palpitations; 0.1%–<1% – angina pectoris, cardiomegaly, pericarditis, ventricular arrhythmia (including ventricular tachycardia); <0.1% – cor pulmonale, myocarditis, acute coronary syndrome.
Eye Disorders: 1%–<10% – visual disorder (including visual disturbance, vision blurred, and visual acuity reduced), dry eye; 0.1% –<1% – conjunctivitis.
Vascular Disorders: 1%–<10% – flushing, hypertension; 0.1%–<1% – hypotension, thrombophlebitis; <0.1% – livedo reticularis.
Psychiatric Disorders: 1%–<10% – insomnia, depression; 0.1%–<1% – anxiety, affect lability, confusional state, libido decreased.
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: 0.1%–<1% – gynecomastia, menstruation irregular.
Injury, Poisoning, and Procedural Complications: 1%–<10% – contusion.
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: 1%–<10% – tinnitus; 0.1%–<1% – vertigo.
Hepatobiliary Disorders: 0.1%–<1% – cholestasis, cholecystitis, hepatitis.
Renal and Urinary Disorders: 0.1%–<1% – urinary frequency, renal failure, proteinuria.
Neoplasms Benign, Malignant, and Unspecified: 0.1%–<1% – tumor lysis syndrome.
Immune System Disorders: 0.1%–<1% – hypersensitivity (including erythema nodosum).
6.4 Postmarketing Experience
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of SPRYCEL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiac disorders: atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter
Vascular disorders: thrombosis/embolism (including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis)
Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: interstitial lung disease
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Drugs That May Increase Dasatinib Plasma Concentrations
CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Dasatinib is a CYP3A4 substrate. In a study of 18 patients with solid tumors, 20-mg SPRYCEL once daily coadministered with 200 mg of ketoconazole twice daily increased the dasatinib Cmax and AUC by four- and five-fold, respectively. Concomitant use of SPRYCEL and drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may increase exposure to dasatinib and should be avoided. In patients receiving treatment with SPRYCEL, close monitoring for toxicity and a SPRYCEL dose reduction should be considered if systemic administration of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
7.2 Drugs That May Decrease Dasatinib Plasma Concentrations
CYP3A4 Inducers: When a single morning dose of SPRYCEL was administered following 8 days of continuous evening administration of 600 mg of rifampin, a potent CYP3A4 inducer, the mean Cmax and AUC of dasatinib were decreased by 81% and 82%, respectively. Alternative agents with less enzyme induction potential should be considered. If SPRYCEL must be administered with a CYP3A4 inducer, a dose increase in SPRYCEL should be considered [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].
Antacids: Nonclinical data demonstrate that the solubility of dasatinib is pH dependent. In a study of 24 healthy subjects, administration of 30 mL of aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide 2 hours prior to a single 50-mg dose of SPRYCEL was associated with no relevant change in dasatinib AUC; however, the dasatinib Cmax increased 26%. When 30 mL of aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide was administered to the same subjects concomitantly with a 50-mg dose of SPRYCEL, a 55% reduction in dasatinib AUC and a 58% reduction in Cmax were observed. Simultaneous administration of SPRYCEL with antacids should be avoided. If antacid therapy is needed, the antacid dose should be administered at least 2 hours prior to or 2 hours after the dose of SPRYCEL.
H2 Antagonists/Proton Pump Inhibitors: Long-term suppression of gastric acid secretion by H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors (eg, famotidine and omeprazole) is likely to reduce dasatinib exposure. In a study of 24 healthy subjects, administration of a single 50-mg dose of SPRYCEL 10 hours following famotidine reduced the AUC and Cmax of dasatinib by 61% and 63%, respectively. In a study of 14 healthy subjects, administration of a single 100-mg dose of SPRYCEL 22 hours following a 40-mg omeprazole dose at steady state reduced the AUC and Cmax of dasatinib by 43% and 42%, respectively. The concomitant use of H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors with SPRYCEL is not recommended. The use of antacids (at least 2 hours prior to or 2 hours after the dose of SPRYCEL) should be considered in place of H2 antagonists or proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving SPRYCEL therapy.
7.3 Drugs That May Have Their Plasma Concentration Altered By Dasatinib
CYP3A4 Substrates: Single-dose data from a study of 54 healthy subjects indicate that the mean Cmax and AUC of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, were increased by 37% and 20%, respectively, when simvastatin was administered in combination with a single 100-mg dose of SPRYCEL. Therefore, CYP3A4 substrates known to have a narrow therapeutic index such as alfentanil, astemizole, terfenadine, cisapride, cyclosporine, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, tacrolimus, or ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine) should be administered with caution in patients receiving SPRYCEL.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category D
SPRYCEL may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of SPRYCEL in pregnant women. Women of childbearing potential should be advised of the potential hazard to the fetus and to avoid becoming pregnant. If SPRYCEL is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking SPRYCEL, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
In nonclinical studies, at plasma concentrations below those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses of dasatinib, embryo-fetal toxicities were observed in rats and rabbits. Fetal death was observed in rats. In both rats and rabbits, the lowest doses of dasatinib tested (rat: 2.5 mg/kg/day [15 mg/m2/day] and rabbit: 0.5 mg/kg/day [6 mg/m2/day]) resulted in embryo-fetal toxicities. These doses produced maternal AUCs of 105 ng•hr/mL (0.3-fold the human AUC in females at a dose of 70 mg twice daily) and 44 ng•hr/mL (0.1-fold the human AUC) in rats and rabbits, respectively. Embryo-fetal toxicities included skeletal malformations at multiple sites (scapula, humerus, femur, radius, ribs, clavicle), reduced ossification (sternum; thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae; forepaw phalanges; pelvis; and hyoid body), edema, and microhepatia.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is unknown whether SPRYCEL is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from SPRYCEL, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and efficacy of SPRYCEL in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
In the newly diagnosed chronic phase CML study, 25 patients (10%) were 65 years of age and over and 7 patients (3%) were 75 years of age and over. Of the 2182 patients in clinical studies of SPRYCEL with resistance or intolerance to imatinib therapy, 547 (25%) were 65 years of age and over and 105 (5%) were 75 years of age and over. No differences in efficacy were observed between older and younger patients. Compared to patients under age 65 years, patients aged 65 years and older are more likely to experience toxicity.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of dasatinib was evaluated in healthy volunteers with normal liver function and patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment. Compared to the healthy volunteers with normal hepatic function, the dose normalized pharmacokinetic parameters were decreased in the patients with hepatic impairment.
No dosage adjustment is necessary in patients with hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Caution is recommended when administering SPRYCEL to patients with hepatic impairment.
Experience with overdose of SPRYCEL in clinical studies is limited to isolated cases. Overdosage of 280 mg per day for 1 week was reported in two patients and both developed severe myelosuppression and bleeding. Since SPRYCEL is associated with severe myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)], patients who ingested more than the recommended dosage should be closely monitored for myelosuppression and given appropriate supportive treatment.
Acute overdose in animals was associated with cardiotoxicity. Evidence of cardiotoxicity included ventricular necrosis and valvular/ventricular/atrial hemorrhage at single doses ≥100 mg/kg (600 mg/m2) in rodents. There was a tendency for increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure in monkeys at single doses ≥10 mg/kg (120 mg/m2).
SPRYCEL (dasatinib) is a kinase inhibitor. The chemical name for dasatinib is N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxamide, monohydrate. The molecular formula is C22H26ClN7O2S • H2O, which corresponds to a formula weight of 506.02 (monohydrate). The anhydrous free base has a molecular weight of 488.01. Dasatinib has the following chemical structure:
Dasatinib is a white to off-white powder. The drug substance is insoluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol and methanol. SPRYCEL tablets are white to off-white, biconvex, film-coated tablets containing dasatinib, with the following inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The tablet coating consists of hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Dasatinib, at nanomolar concentrations, inhibits the following kinases: BCR-ABL, SRC family (SRC, LCK, YES, FYN), c-KIT, EPHA2, and PDGFRβ. Based on modeling studies, dasatinib is predicted to bind to multiple conformations of the ABL kinase.
In vitro, dasatinib was active in leukemic cell lines representing variants of imatinib mesylate sensitive and resistant disease. Dasatinib inhibited the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines overexpressing BCR-ABL. Under the conditions of the assays, dasatinib was able to overcome imatinib resistance resulting from BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations, activation of alternate signaling pathways involving the SRC family kinases (LYN, HCK), and multi-drug resistance gene overexpression.
Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of dasatinib are observed between 0.5 and 6 hours (Tmax) following oral administration. Dasatinib exhibits dose proportional increases in AUC and linear elimination characteristics over the dose range of 15 mg to 240 mg/day. The overall mean terminal half-life of dasatinib is 3–5 hours.
Data from a study of 54 healthy subjects administered a single, 100-mg dose of dasatinib 30 minutes following consumption of a high-fat meal resulted in a 14% increase in the mean AUC of dasatinib. The observed food effects were not clinically relevant.
In patients, dasatinib has an apparent volume of distribution of 2505 L, suggesting that the drug is extensively distributed in the extravascular space. Binding of dasatinib and its active metabolite to human plasma proteins in vitro was approximately 96% and 93%, respectively, with no concentration dependence over the range of 100–500 ng/mL.
Dasatinib is extensively metabolized in humans, primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4. CYP3A4 was the primary enzyme responsible for the formation of the active metabolite. Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO-3) and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes are also involved in the formation of dasatinib metabolites.
The exposure of the active metabolite, which is equipotent to dasatinib, represents approximately 5% of the dasatinib AUC. This indicates that the active metabolite of dasatinib is unlikely to play a major role in the observed pharmacology of the drug. Dasatinib also had several other inactive oxidative metabolites.
Dasatinib is a weak time-dependent inhibitor of CYP3A4. At clinically relevant concentrations, dasatinib does not inhibit CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, or 2E1. Dasatinib is not an inducer of human CYP enzymes.
Elimination is primarily via the feces. Following a single oral dose of [14C]-labeled dasatinib, approximately 4% and 85% of the administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine and feces, respectively, within 10 days. Unchanged dasatinib accounted for 0.1% and 19% of the administered dose in urine and feces, respectively, with the remainder of the dose being metabolites.
Effects of Age and Gender
Pharmacokinetic analyses of demographic data indicate that there are no clinically relevant effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of dasatinib.
Dasatinib doses of 50 mg and 20 mg were evaluated in eight patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and seven patients with severe (Child-Pugh class C) hepatic impairment, respectively. Matched controls with normal hepatic function (n=15) were also evaluated and received a dasatinib dose of 70 mg. Compared to subjects with normal liver function, patients with moderate hepatic impairment had decreases in dose normalized Cmax and AUC by 47% and 8%, respectively. Patients with severe hepatic impairment had dose normalized Cmax decreased by 43% and AUC decreased by 28% compared to the normal controls.
These differences in Cmax and AUC are not clinically relevant. Dose adjustment is not necessary in patients with hepatic impairment.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity studies were not performed with dasatinib.
Dasatinib was clastogenic when tested in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary cells, with and without metabolic activation. Dasatinib was not mutagenic when tested in an in vitro bacterial cell assay (Ames test) and was not genotoxic in an in vivo rat micronucleus study.
The effects of dasatinib on male and female fertility have not been studied. However, results of repeat-dose toxicity studies in multiple species indicate the potential for dasatinib to impair reproductive function and fertility. Effects evident in male animals included reduced size and secretion of seminal vesicles, and immature prostate, seminal vesicle, and testis. The administration of dasatinib resulted in uterine inflammation and mineralization in monkeys, and cystic ovaries and ovarian hypertrophy in rodents.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Newly Diagnosed Chronic Phase CML
An open-label, multicenter, international, randomized trial was conducted in adult patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase CML. A total of 519 patients were randomized to receive either SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily or imatinib 400 mg once daily. The primary endpoint was the rate of confirmed complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) within 12 months. Confirmed CCyR was defined as a CCyR noted on two consecutive occasions (at least 28 days apart).
Median age was 46 years in the SPRYCEL group and 49 years in the imatinib groups, with 10% and 11% of patients ≥65 years of age. There were slightly more male than female patients in both groups (59% vs 41%). Fifty-three percent of all patients were Caucasian, and 39% were Asian. At baseline, the distribution of Hasford Scores was similar in the SPRYCEL and imatinib treatment groups (low risk: 33% and 34%; intermediate risk: 48% and 47%; high risk: 19% and 19%, respectively).
The median duration of treatment was 14 months for SPRYCEL and 14 months for imatinib. With a minimum of 12 months follow-up, 85% of patients randomized to SPRYCEL and 81% of patients randomized to imatinib were still on study.
Efficacy results are summarized in Table 6.
Median time to confirmed CCyR was 3.1 months in 199 SPRYCEL responders and 5.6 months in 177 imatinib responders. Median time to MMR was 6.3 months in 135 SPRYCEL responders and 9.2 months in 88 imatinib responders.
Five patients on the dasatinib arm progressed to either accelerated phase or blast crisis while nine patients on the imatinib arm progressed to either accelerated phase or blast crisis.
14.2 Imatinib Resistant or Intolerant CML or Ph+ ALL
The efficacy and safety of SPRYCEL were investigated in adult patients with CML or Ph+ ALL whose disease was resistant to or who were intolerant to imatinib: 1158 patients had chronic phase CML, 858 patients had accelerated phase, myeloid blast phase, or lymphoid blast phase CML, and 130 patients had Ph+ ALL. In a clinical study in chronic phase CML, resistance to imatinib was defined as failure to achieve a complete hematologic response (CHR; after 3 months), major cytogenetic response (MCyR; after 6 months), or complete cytogenetic response (CCyR; after 12 months); or loss of a previous molecular response (with concurrent ≥10% increase in Ph+ metaphases), cytogenetic response, or hematologic response. Imatinib intolerance was defined as inability to tolerate 400 mg or more of imatinib per day or discontinuation of imatinib because of toxicity.
Results described below are based on a minimum of 2 years follow-up after the start of SPRYCEL therapy in patients with a median time from initial diagnosis of approximately 5 years. Across all studies, 48% of patients were women, 81% were white, 15% were black or Asian, 25% were 65 years of age or older, and 5% were 75 years of age or older. Most patients had long disease histories with extensive prior treatment, including imatinib, cytotoxic chemotherapy, interferon, and stem cell transplant. Overall, 80% of patients had imatinib-resistant disease and 20% of patients were intolerant to imatinib. The maximum imatinib dose had been 400–600 mg/day in about 60% of the patients and >600 mg/day in 40% of the patients.
The primary efficacy endpoint in chronic phase CML was MCyR, defined as elimination (CCyR) or substantial diminution (by at least 65%, partial cytogenetic response) of Ph+ hematopoietic cells. The primary efficacy endpoint in accelerated phase, myeloid blast phase, lymphoid blast phase CML, and Ph+ ALL was major hematologic response (MaHR), defined as either a CHR or no evidence of leukemia (NEL).
Chronic Phase CML
Dose-Optimization Study: A randomized, open-label study was conducted in patients with chronic phase CML to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SPRYCEL administered once daily compared with SPRYCEL administered twice daily. Patients with significant cardiac diseases, including myocardial infarction within 6 months, congestive heart failure within 3 months, significant arrhythmias, or QTc prolongation were excluded from the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was MCyR in patients with imatinib-resistant CML. A total of 670 patients, of whom 497 had imatinib-resistant disease, were randomized to the SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily, 140 mg once daily, 50 mg twice daily, or 70 mg twice daily group. Median duration of treatment was 22 months.
Efficacy was achieved across all SPRYCEL treatment groups with the once daily schedule demonstrating comparable efficacy (non-inferiority) to the twice daily schedule on the primary efficacy endpoint (difference in MCyR 1.9%; 95% CI [-6.8%–10.6%]).
Efficacy results are presented in Table 7 for patients with chronic phase CML who received the recommended starting dose of 100 mg once daily. Additional efficacy results in this patient population are described after the table. Results for all patients with chronic phase CML, regardless of dosage (a starting dosage of 100 mg once daily, 140 mg once daily, 50 mg twice daily, or 70 mg twice daily), were consistent with those for patients treated with 100 mg once daily.
In the SPRYCEL 100 mg once daily group, median time to MCyR was 2.9 months (95% CI: [2.8–3.0]). Based on the Kaplan-Meier estimates, 93% (95% CI: [88%–98%]) of patients who had achieved an MCyR maintained that response for 18 months. The estimated rate of progression-free survival and overall survival in all patients treated with 100 mg once daily was 80% (95% CI: [73%–87%]) and 91% (95% CI: [86%–96%]), respectively, at 2 years.
Advanced Phase CML and Ph+ ALL
Dose-Optimization Study: One randomized open-label study was conducted in patients with advanced phase CML (accelerated phase CML, myeloid blast phase CML, or lymphoid blast phase CML) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SPRYCEL administered once daily compared with SPRYCEL administered twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was MaHR. A total of 611 patients were randomized to either the SPRYCEL 140 mg once daily or 70 mg twice daily group. Median duration of treatment was approximately 6 months for both treatment groups. The once daily schedule demonstrated comparable efficacy (non-inferiority) to the twice daily schedule on the primary efficacy endpoint.
The efficacy and safety of SPRYCEL were also investigated in patients with Ph+ ALL in one Phase 3 randomized study (starting dosage 140 mg once daily or 70 mg twice daily) and one Phase 2 single-arm study (starting dosage 70 mg twice daily). The primary efficacy endpoint was MaHR. A total of 130 patients were enrolled in these studies. The median duration of therapy was 3 months.
Response rates are presented in Table 8.
In the SPRYCEL 140 mg once daily group, the median time to MaHR was 1.9 months for patients with accelerated phase CML, 1.9 months for patients with myeloid blast phase CML, and 1.8 months for patients with lymphoid blast phase CML.
In patients with myeloid blast phase CML, the median duration of MaHR was 8 months and 9 months for the 140 mg once daily group and the 70 mg twice daily group, respectively. In patients with lymphoid blast phase CML, the median duration of MaHR was 5 months and 8 months for the 140 mg once daily group and the 70 mg twice daily group, respectively. In patients with Ph+ ALL who were treated with SPRYCEL 140 mg once daily, the median duration of MaHR was 4.6 months. The medians of progression-free survival for patients with Ph+ ALL treated with SPRYCEL 140 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily were 4.0 months and 3.5 months, respectively.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied
SPRYCEL® (dasatinib) tablets are available as described in Table 9.
SPRYCEL® tablets should be stored at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15°–30°C (59°–86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
16.3 Handling and Disposal
Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be considered. Several guidelines on this subject have been published [see References (15)].
SPRYCEL (dasatinib) tablets consist of a core tablet (containing the active drug substance), surrounded by a film coating to prevent exposure of pharmacy and clinical personnel to the active drug substance. However, if tablets are inadvertently crushed or broken, pharmacy and clinical personnel should wear disposable chemotherapy gloves. Personnel who are pregnant should avoid exposure to crushed or broken tablets.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
See FDA-Approved Patient Labeling.
Patients should be informed of the possibility of serious bleeding and to report immediately any signs or symptoms suggestive of hemorrhage (unusual bleeding or easy bruising).
Patients should be informed of the possibility of developing low blood cell counts; they should be instructed to report immediately should fever develop, particularly in association with any suggestion of infection.
17.3 Fluid Retention
Patients should be informed of the possibility of developing fluid retention (swelling, weight gain, or shortness of breath) and to seek medical attention if those symptoms arise.
Patients should be informed that dasatinib may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Women should be advised of the potential hazard to the fetus and to avoid becoming pregnant. If SPRYCEL is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking SPRYCEL, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
17.5 Gastrointestinal Complaints
Patients should be informed that they may experience nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea with SPRYCEL. If these symptoms are significant, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience headache or musculoskeletal pain with SPRYCEL. If these symptoms are significant, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience fatigue with SPRYCEL. If this symptom is significant, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that they may experience skin rash with SPRYCEL. If this symptom is significant, they should seek medical attention.
Patients should be informed that SPRYCEL contains 135 mg of lactose monohydrate in a 100-mg daily dose and 189 mg of lactose monohydrate in a 140-mg daily dose.
FDA-Approved Patient Labeling
Read the Patient Information that comes with SPRYCEL before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment.
What is SPRYCEL?
SPRYCEL® is a prescription medicine used to treat adults who have:
It is not known if SPRYCEL is safe and effective in children younger than 18 years old.
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking SPRYCEL?
Before you take SPRYCEL, tell your healthcare provider if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, antacids, and herbal supplements.
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you take:
SPRYCEL is best absorbed from your stomach into your bloodstream in the presence of stomach acid. You should avoid taking medicines that reduce stomach acid such as:
Medicines that neutralize stomach acid, such as Maalox® (aluminum hydroxide/magnesium hydroxide), Tums® (calcium carbonate), or Rolaids® (calcium carbonate and magnesia) may be taken up to 2 hours before or 2 hours after SPRYCEL.
Since SPRYCEL therapy may cause bleeding, tell your healthcare provider if you are using blood thinner medicine, such as Coumadin® (warfarin sodium) or aspirin.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take SPRYCEL?
Take SPRYCEL exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider.
What are the possible side effects of SPRYCEL?
SPRYCEL may cause serious side effects, including:
Other common side effects of SPRYCEL therapy include:
Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all of the possible side effects of SPRYCEL. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store SPRYCEL?
General information about SPRYCEL
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in the Patient Information leaflet. Do not use SPRYCEL for a condition for which it is not prescribed. Do not give SPRYCEL to other people even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.
This Patient Information leaflet summarizes the most important information about SPRYCEL. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about SPRYCEL that is written for healthcare professionals.
For more information, go to www.sprycel.com or call 1-800-332-2056.
What are the ingredients in SPRYCEL?
Active ingredient: dasatinib
Inactive ingredients: lactose monohydrate, microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and magnesium stearate. The tablet coating consists of hypromellose, titanium dioxide, and polyethylene glycol.
The Patient Information leaflet was last revised: 10/2010
Issued: June 2006
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
See How Supplied section for a complete list of available packages of SPRYCEL.
60 Tablets NDC 0003-0527-11
60 Tablets NDC 0003-0528-11
60 Tablets NDC 0003-0524-11
30 Tablets NDC 0003-0855-22
30 Tablets NDC 0003-0852-22
30 Tablets NDC 0003-0857-22
Revised: 10/2010 E.R. Squibb & Sons, L.L.C.
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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