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FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Bone Metastasis from Solid Tumors
Xgeva is indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors.
1.2 Important Limitation of Use
Xgeva is not indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with multiple myeloma [see Clinical Trials (14)].
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Recommended Dosage
The recommended dose of Xgeva is 120 mg administered as a subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen.
Administer calcium and vitamin D as necessary to treat or prevent hypocalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
2.2 Preparation and Administration
Visually inspect Xgeva for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Xgeva is a clear, colorless to pale yellow solution that may contain trace amounts of translucent to white proteinaceous particles. Do not use if the solution is discolored or cloudy or if the solution contains many particles or foreign particulate matter.
Prior to administration, Xgeva may be removed from the refrigerator and brought to room temperature (up to 25°C/77°F) by standing in the original container. This generally takes 15 to 30 minutes. Do not warm Xgeva in any other way [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)].
Use a 27-gauge needle to withdraw and inject the entire contents of the vial. Do not re-enter the vial. Discard vial after single-use or entry.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Xgeva can cause severe hypocalcemia. Correct pre-existing hypocalcemia prior to Xgeva treatment. Monitor calcium levels and administer calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D as necessary. Monitor levels more frequently when Xgeva is administered with other drugs that can also lower calcium levels. Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for symptoms of hypocalcemia [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].
Based on clinical trials using a lower dose of denosumab, patients with a creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min or receiving dialysis are at greater risk of severe hypocalcemia compared to patients with normal renal function. In a trial of 55 patients, without cancer and with varying degrees of renal impairment, who received a single dose of 60 mg denosumab, 8 of 17 patients with a creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min or receiving dialysis experienced corrected serum calcium levels less than 8.0 mg/dL as compared to 0 of 12 patients with normal renal function. The risk of hypocalcemia at the recommended dosing schedule of 120 mg every 4 weeks has not been evaluated in patients with a creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min or receiving dialysis.
5.2 Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ)
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) can occur in patients receiving Xgeva, manifesting as jaw pain, osteomyelitis, osteitis, bone erosion, tooth or periodontal infection, toothache, gingival ulceration, or gingival erosion. Persistent pain or slow healing of the mouth or jaw after dental surgery may also be manifestations of ONJ. In clinical trials, 2.2% of patients receiving Xgeva developed ONJ; of these patients, 79% had a history of tooth extraction, poor oral hygiene, or use of a dental appliance [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Perform an oral examination and appropriate preventive dentistry prior to the initiation of Xgeva and periodically during Xgeva therapy. Advise patients regarding oral hygiene practices. Avoid invasive dental procedures during treatment with Xgeva.
Patients who are suspected of having or who develop ONJ while on Xgeva should receive care by a dentist or an oral surgeon. In these patients, extensive dental surgery to treat ONJ may exacerbate the condition.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are discussed below and also elsewhere in the labeling:
The most common adverse reactions in patients receiving Xgeva (per-patient incidence greater than or equal to 25%) were fatigue/asthenia, hypophosphatemia, and nausea (see Table 1).
The most common serious adverse reaction in patients receiving Xgeva was dyspnea.
The most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of Xgeva were osteonecrosis and hypocalcemia.
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety of Xgeva was evaluated in three randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trials [see Clinical Trials (14)] in which a total of 2841 patients with bone metastasis from prostate cancer, breast cancer, or other solid tumors, or lytic bony lesions from multiple myeloma received at least one dose of Xgeva. In Trials 1, 2, and 3, patients were randomized to receive either 120 mg of Xgeva every 4 weeks as a subcutaneous injection or 4 mg (dose adjusted for reduced renal function) of zoledronic acid every 4 weeks by intravenous (IV) infusion. Entry criteria included serum calcium (corrected) from 8 to 11.5 mg/dL (2 to 2.9 mmol/L) and creatinine clearance 30 mL/min or greater. Patients who had received IV bisphosphonates were excluded, as were patients with prior history of ONJ or osteomyelitis of the jaw, an active dental or jaw condition requiring oral surgery, non-healed dental/oral surgery, or any planned invasive dental procedure. During the study, serum chemistries including calcium and phosphorus were monitored every 4 weeks. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation was recommended but not required.
The median duration of exposure to Xgeva was 12 months (range: 0.1 – 41) and median duration on-study was 13 months (range: 0.1 – 41). Of patients who received Xgeva, 46% were female. Eighty-five percent were White, 5% Hispanic/Latino, 6% Asian, and 3% Black. The median age was 63 years (range: 18 – 93). Seventy-five percent of patients who received Xgeva received concomitant chemotherapy.
Severe Mineral/Electrolyte Abnormalities
Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
In the primary treatment phases of Trials 1, 2, and 3, ONJ was confirmed in 1.8% of patients in the Xgeva group and 1.3% of patients in the zoledronic acid group [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. When events occurring during an extended treatment phase of approximately 4 months in each trial are included, the incidence of confirmed ONJ was 2.2% in patients who received Xgeva. The median time to ONJ was 14 months (range: 4 – 25).
As with all therapeutic proteins, there is potential for immunogenicity. Using an electrochemiluminescent bridging immunoassay, less than 1% (7/2758) of patients with osseous metastases treated with denosumab doses ranging from 30-180 mg every 4 weeks or every 12 weeks for up to 3 years tested positive for binding antibodies. No patient with positive binding antibodies tested positive for neutralizing antibodies as assessed using a chemiluminescent cell-based in vitro biological assay. There was no evidence of altered pharmacokinetic profile, toxicity profile, or clinical response associated with binding antibody development.
The incidence of antibody formation is highly dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. Additionally, the observed incidence of a positive antibody (including neutralizing antibody) test result may be influenced by several factors, including assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of antibodies to denosumab with the incidence of antibodies to other products may be misleading.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
No formal drug-drug interaction trials have been conducted with Xgeva.
In clinical trials in patients with breast cancer metastatic to bone, Xgeva was administered in combination with standard anticancer treatment. Serum denosumab concentrations at 1 and 3 months and reductions in the bone turnover marker uNTx/Cr (urinary N-terminal telopeptide corrected for creatinine) at 3 months were similar in patients with and without prior intravenous bisphosphonate therapy.
There was no evidence that various anticancer treatments affected denosumab systemic exposure and pharmacodynamic effect. Serum denosumab concentrations at 1 and 3 months were not altered by concomitant chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. The median reduction in uNTx/Cr from baseline to month 3 was similar between patients receiving concomitant chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.1 Pregnancy: Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled trials of Xgeva in pregnant women. Use Xgeva during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Encourage women who become pregnant during Xgeva treatment to enroll in Amgen’s Pregnancy Surveillance Program. Patients or their physicians should call 1-800-77-AMGEN (1-800-772-6436) to enroll.
In an embryofetal developmental study, cynomolgus monkeys received subcutaneous denosumab weekly during organogenesis at doses up to 6.5-fold higher than the recommended human dose of 120 mg every 4 weeks, based on body weight (mg/kg). No evidence of maternal toxicity or fetal harm was observed. However, this study only assessed fetal toxicity during the first trimester, and fetal lymph nodes were not examined. Potential adverse developmental effects resulting from exposures during the second and third trimesters have not been assessed in animals [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
In genetically engineered mice in which the gene for RANK ligand (RANKL) has been deleted (a “knockout mouse”), the absence of RANKL caused fetal lymph node agenesis and led to postnatal impairment of dentition and bone growth. Pregnant RANKL knockout mice also showed altered maturation of the maternal mammary gland, leading to impaired lactation postpartum [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether Xgeva is excreted into human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Xgeva, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Maternal exposure to Xgeva during pregnancy may impair mammary gland development and lactation based on animal studies in pregnant mice lacking the RANK/RANKL signaling pathway that have shown altered maturation of the maternal mammary gland, leading to impaired lactation postpartum [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Xgeva in pediatric patients have not been established. Treatment with Xgeva may impair bone growth in children with open growth plates and may inhibit eruption of dentition.
In neonatal rats, inhibition of RANKL with a construct of osteoprotegerin bound to Fc (OPG-Fc) at doses less than or equal to 10 mg/kg was associated with inhibition of bone growth and tooth eruption. Adolescent monkeys dosed with denosumab at 5 and 25 times (10 and 50 mg/kg dose) higher than the recommended human dose of 120 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks (based on body weight mg/kg) had abnormal growth plates [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of patients who received Xgeva in Trials 1, 2, and 3, 1260 (44%) were 65 years of age or older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients.
8.6 Renal Impairment
In a trial of 55 patients without cancer and with varying degrees of renal function who received a single dose of 60 mg denosumab, patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min or receiving dialysis were at greater risk of severe hypocalcemia with denosumab compared to patients with normal renal function. The risk of hypocalcemia at the recommended dosing schedule of 120 mg every 4 weeks has not been evaluated in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min or receiving dialysis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Adverse Reactions (6.1), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Xgeva (denosumab) is a human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that binds to human RANKL. Denosumab has an approximate molecular weight of 147 kDa and is produced in genetically engineered mammalian (Chinese hamster ovary) cells.
Xgeva is a sterile, preservative-free, clear, colorless to pale yellow solution.
Each single-use vial of Xgeva contains 120 mg denosumab, 4.6% sorbitol, 18 mM acetate, Water for Injection (USP), and sodium hydroxide to a pH of 5.2.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Xgeva binds to RANKL, a transmembrane or soluble protein essential for the formation, function, and survival of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption. Xgeva prevents RANKL from activating its receptor, RANK, on the surface of osteoclasts and their precursors. Increased osteoclast activity, stimulated by RANKL, is a mediator of bone pathology in solid tumors with osseous metastases.
In patients with breast cancer and bone metastases, the median reduction in uNTx/Cr was 82% within 1 week following initiation of Xgeva 120 mg administered subcutaneously. In Trials 1, 2, and 3, the median reduction in uNTx/Cr from baseline to month 3 was approximately 80% in 2075 Xgeva-treated patients.
Following subcutaneous administration, bioavailability was 62%. Denosumab displayed nonlinear pharmacokinetics at doses below 60 mg, but approximately dose-proportional increases in exposure at higher doses. With multiple subcutaneous doses of 120 mg every 4 weeks in patients with cancer metastatic to the bone, up to 2.8-fold accumulation in serum denosumab concentrations was observed and steady state was achieved by 6 months. At steady state, the mean ± SD serum trough concentration was 20.5 ± 13.5 mcg/mL at the recommended Xgeva dose, and the mean elimination half-life was 28 days.
A population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of demographic characteristics. Denosumab clearance and volume of distribution were proportional to body weight. The steady-state exposure following repeat subcutaneous administration of 120 mg every 4 weeks to 45 kg and 120 kg subjects were, respectively, 48% higher and 46% lower than exposure of the typical 66 kg subject.
The pharmacokinetics of denosumab were not affected by age, gender, and race. The pharmacokinetics of denosumab in pediatric patients have not been assessed.
Hepatic Impairment: No clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of denosumab.
Renal Impairment: In a trial of 55 subjects with varying degrees of renal function, including subjects on dialysis, the degree of renal impairment had no effect on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of denosumab [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
The carcinogenic potential of denosumab has not been evaluated in long-term animal studies.
The genotoxic potential of denosumab has not been evaluated.
Impairment of Fertility
Denosumab had no effect on female fertility or male reproductive organs in monkeys at exposures that were 6.5- to 25-fold higher than the observed human dose of 120 mg subcutaneously administered once every 4 weeks (based on body weight mg/kg).
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
Denosumab is an inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption via inhibition of RANKL. Adolescent nonhuman primates treated with monthly doses of denosumab greater than 5 times the recommended human dose of 120 mg had abnormal growth plates. Because the biological activity of denosumab in animals is specific to nonhuman primates, evaluation of genetically engineered (knockout) mice or use of other biological inhibitors of the RANK/RANKL pathway, OPG-Fc and RANK-Fc, provided additional safety information on the inhibition of the RANK/RANKL pathway in rodent models. A study in 2-week-old rats given the RANKL inhibitor OPG-Fc showed reduced bone growth, altered growth plates, and impaired tooth eruption. These changes were partially reversible in this model when dosing with the RANKL inhibitors was discontinued. Neonatal RANK/RANKL knockout mice also exhibited reduced bone growth and lack of tooth eruption. RANK/RANKL knockout mice also exhibited absence of lymph node formation, as well as an absence of lactation due to inhibition of mammary gland maturation (lobulo-alveolar gland development during pregnancy) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3, 8.4)].
14 CLINICAL TRIALS
The safety and efficacy of Xgeva for the prevention of skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors was demonstrated in three international, randomized (1:1), double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trials comparing Xgeva with zoledronic acid. In all three trials, patients were randomized to receive 120 mg Xgeva subcutaneously every 4 weeks or 4 mg zoledronic acid intravenously (IV) every 4 weeks (dose adjusted for reduced renal function). Patients with creatinine clearance less than 30 mL/min were excluded. In each trial, the main outcome measure was demonstration of noninferiority of time to first skeletal-related event (SRE) as compared to zoledronic acid. Supportive outcome measures were superiority of time to first SRE and superiority of time to first and subsequent SRE; testing for these outcome measures occurred if the main outcome measure was statistically significant. An SRE was defined as any of the following: pathologic fracture, radiation therapy to bone, surgery to bone, or spinal cord compression.
Trial 1 enrolled 2046 patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastasis. Randomization was stratified by a history of prior SRE (yes or no), receipt of chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to randomization (yes or no), prior oral bisphosphonate use (yes or no), and region (Japan or other countries). Forty percent of patients had a previous SRE, 40% received chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to randomization, 5% received prior oral bisphosphonates, and 7% were enrolled from Japan. Median age was 57 years, 80% of patients were White, and 99% of patients were women. The median number of doses administered was 18 for denosumab and 17 for zoledronic acid.
Trial 2 enrolled 1776 adults with solid tumors other than breast and castrate-resistant prostate cancer with bone metastasis and multiple myeloma. Randomization was stratified by previous SRE (yes or no), systemic anticancer therapy at time of randomization (yes or no), and tumor type (non-small cell lung cancer, myeloma, or other). Eighty-seven percent were receiving systemic anticancer therapy at the time of randomization, 52% had a previous SRE, 64% of patients were men, 87% were White, and the median age was 60 years. A total of 40% of patients had non-small cell lung cancer, 10% had multiple myeloma, 9% had renal cell carcinoma, and 6% had small cell lung cancer. Other tumor types each comprised less than 5% of the enrolled population. The median number of doses administered was 7 for both denosumab and zoledronic acid.
Trial 3 enrolled 1901 men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastasis. Randomization was stratified by previous SRE, PSA level (less than 10 ng/mL or 10 ng/mL or greater) and receipt of chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to randomization (yes or no). Twenty-six percent of patients had a previous SRE, 15% of patients had PSA less than 10 ng/mL, and 14% received chemotherapy within 6 weeks prior to randomization. Median age was 71 years and 86% of patients were White. The median number of doses administered was 13 for denosumab and 11 for zoledronic acid.
Xgeva delayed the time to first SRE following randomization as compared to zoledronic acid in patients with breast or castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with osseous metastases (Table 2). In patients with bone metastasis due to other solid tumors or lytic lesions due to multiple myeloma, Xgeva was noninferior to zoledronic acid in delaying the time to first SRE following randomization.
Overall survival and progression-free survival were similar between arms in all three trials. Mortality was higher with Xgeva in a subgroup analysis of patients with multiple myeloma (hazard ratio [95% CI] of 2.26 [1.13, 4.50]; n = 180).
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Xgeva is supplied in a single-use vial.
Store Xgeva in a refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) in the original carton. Do not freeze. Once removed from the refrigerator, Xgeva must not be exposed to temperatures above 25°C/77°F or direct light and must be used within 14 days. Discard Xgeva if not used within the 14 days. Do not use Xgeva after the expiry date printed on the label.
Protect Xgeva from direct light and heat.
Avoid vigorous shaking of Xgeva.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Advise patients to contact a healthcare professional for any of the following:
This product, its production, and/or its use may be covered by one or more U.S. Patents, including U.S. Patent Nos. 6,740,522; 7,411,050; 7,097,834; and 7,364,736, as well as other patents or patents pending.
© 2010 Amgen Inc. All rights reserved.
1xxxxx - v1
PACKAGE LABEL - PRINICPAL DISPLAY PANEL - VIAL, 120 MG
1 × 120 mg Single Use Vial
120 mg/1.7 mL
For Subcutaneous Use Only
120 mg/1.7 mL
Single Use Vial. Discard Unused Portion.
Sterile Solution – No Preservative
Refrigerate at 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F).
Do not freeze. Avoid excessive shaking.
Protect from direct light.
Manufactured by: Amgen Manufacturing Ltd.,
a subsidiary of Amgen Inc.
Thousand Oaks, CA 91320-1799
Revised: 11/2010 AMGEN
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
Copyright © 2018
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