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topiramate tablet, film coated
----------Topiramate 100 MG
Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide. Topiramate tablets are available as 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg circular tablets for oral administration.
Mechanism of Action:
The precise mechanisms by which topiramate exerts its anticonvulsant effects are unknown; however, preclinical studies have revealed four properties that may contribute to topiramate's efficacy for epilepsy. Electrophysiological and biochemical evidence suggests that topiramate, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, blocks voltage-dependent sodium channels, augments the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyrate at some subtypes of the GABA-A receptor, antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of the glutamate receptor, and inhibits the carbonic anhydrase enzyme, particularly isozymes II and IV.Pharmacodynamics:
Topiramate has anticonvulsant activity in rat and mouse maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests. Topiramate is only weakly effective in blocking clonic seizures induced by the GABAA receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazole. Topiramate is also effective in rodent models of epilepsy, which include tonic and absence-like seizures in the spontaneous epileptic rat (SER) and tonic and clonic seizures induced in rats by kindling of the amygdala or by global ischemia.
The sprinkle formulation is bioequivalent to the immediate
release tablet formulation and, therefore, may be substituted as a therapeutic
Absorption of topiramate is rapid, with peak plasma concentrations occurring
at approximately 2 hours following a 400 mg oral dose. The relative
bioavailability of topiramate from the tablet formulation is about 80% compared
to a solution. The bioavailability of topiramate is not affected by
The pharmacokinetics of topiramate are linear with dose proportional
increases in plasma concentration over the dose range studied (200 to 800
mg/day). The mean plasma elimination half-life is 21 hours after single or
multiple doses. Steady state is thus reached in about 4 days in patients with
normal renal function. Topiramate is 15 to 41% bound to human plasma proteins
over the blood concentration range of 0.5 to 250 mcg/mL. The fraction bound
decreased as blood concentration increased.
Carbamazepine and phenytoin do not alter the binding of topiramate. Sodium valproate, at 500 mcg/mL (a concentration 5 to 10 times higher than considered therapeutic for valproate) decreased the protein binding of topiramate from 23% to 13%. Topiramate does not influence the binding of sodium valproate.Metabolism and Excretion:
Topiramate is not extensively metabolized and is primarily eliminated unchanged in the urine (approximately 70% of an administered dose). Six metabolites have been identified in humans, none of which constitutes more than 5% of an administered dose. The metabolites are formed via hydroxylation, hydrolysis, and glucuronidation. There is evidence of renal tubular reabsorption of topiramate. In rats, given probenecid to inhibit tubular reabsorption, along with topiramate, a significant increase in renal clearance of topiramate was observed. This interaction has not been evaluated in humans. Overall, oral plasma clearance (CL/F) is approximately 20 to 30 mL/min in humans following oral administration.Pharmacokinetic Interactions
(see also Drug Interactions):
Potential interactions between topiramate and standard AEDs were assessed in
controlled clinical pharmacokinetic studies in patients with epilepsy. The
effect of these interactions on mean plasma AUCs are summarized under PRECAUTIONS (Table 4).
INDICATIONS AND USAGEMonotherapy Epilepsy
Topiramate tablets are indicated as initial monotherapy in patients 10 years of age and older with partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Effectiveness was demonstrated in a controlled trial in patients with epilepsy who had no more than 2 seizures in the 3 months prior to enrollment. Safety and effectiveness in patients who were converted to monotherapy from a previous regimen of other anticonvulsant drugs have not been established in controlled trials.Adjunctive Therapy Epilepsy
Topiramate tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy for adults and pediatric patients ages 2 to 16 years with partial onset seizures, or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and in patients 2 years of age and older with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.
Topiramate tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any component of this product.
WARNINGSAcute Myopia and Secondary Angle Closure Glaucoma
A syndrome consisting of acute myopia associated with secondary angle closure glaucoma has been reported in patients receiving topiramate. Symptoms include acute onset of decreased visual acuity and/or ocular pain. Ophthalmologic findings can include myopia, anterior chamber shallowing, ocular hyperemia (redness) and increased intraocular pressure. Mydriasis may or may not be present. This syndrome may be associated with supraciliary effusion resulting in anterior displacement of the lens and iris, with secondary angle closure glaucoma. Symptoms typically occur within 1 month of initiating topiramate therapy. In contrast to primary narrow angle glaucoma, which is rare under 40 years of age, secondary angle closure glaucoma associated with topiramate has been reported in pediatric patients as well as adults. The primary treatment to reverse symptoms is discontinuation of topiramate as rapidly as possible, according to the judgment of the treating physician. Other measures, in conjunction with discontinuation of topiramate, may be helpful.
Elevated intraocular pressure of any etiology, if left untreated, can lead to serious sequelae including permanent vision loss.Oligohidrosis and Hyperthermia
Oligohidrosis (decreased sweating), infrequently resulting in hospitalization, has been reported in association with topiramate use. Decreased sweating and an elevation in body temperature above normal characterized these cases. Some of the cases were reported after exposure to elevated environmental temperatures.
The majority of the reports have been in children. Patients, especially pediatric patients, treated with topiramate should be monitored closely for evidence of decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather. Caution should be used when topiramate is prescribed with other drugs that predispose patients to heat-related disorders; these drugs include, but are not limited to, other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and drugs with anticholinergic activity.Suicidal Behavior and Ideation
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including topiramate, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5 to 100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed
Hyperammonemia and Encephalopathy Associated with Concomitant Valproic Acid Use
Concomitant administration of topiramate and valproic acid has been associated with hyperammonemia with or without encephalopathy in patients who have tolerated either drug alone. Clinical symptoms of hyperammonemic encephalopathy often include acute alterations in level of consciousness and/or cognitive function with lethargy or vomiting. In most cases, symptoms and signs abated with discontinuation of either drug. This adverse event is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction.
It is not known if topiramate monotherapy is associated with hyperammonemia.
Patients with inborn errors of metabolism or reduced hepatic mitochondrial activity may be at an increased risk for hyperammonemia with or without encephalopathy. Although not studied, an interaction of topiramate and valproic acid may exacerbate existing defects or unmask deficiencies in susceptible persons.
In patients who develop unexplained lethargy, vomiting, or changes in mental status, hyperammonemic encephalopathy should be considered and an ammonia level should be measured.Kidney Stones
A total of 32/2,086 (1.5%) of adults exposed to topiramate during its adjunctive epilepsy therapy development reported the occurrence of kidney stones, an incidence about 2 to 4 times greater than expected in a similar, untreated population. In the double-blind monotherapy epilepsy study, a total of 4/319 (1.3%) of adults exposed to topiramate reported the occurrence of kidney stones. As in the general population, the incidence of stone formation among topiramate treated patients was higher in men. Kidney stones have also been reported in pediatric patients.
An explanation for the association of topiramate and kidney stones may lie in the fact that topiramate is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, e.g., acetazolamide or dichlorphenamide, promote stone formation by reducing urinary citrate excretion and by increasing urinary pH. The concomitant use of topiramate with other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or potentially in patients on a ketogenic diet may create a physiological environment that increases the risk of kidney stone formation, and should therefore be avoided.
Increased fluid intake increases the urinary output, lowering the concentration of substances involved in stone formation. Hydration is recommended to reduce new stone formation.Paresthesia
Paresthesia (usually tingling of the extremities), an effect associated with the use of other carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, appears to be a common effect of topiramate. Paresthesia was more frequently reported in the monotherapy epilepsy trials versus the adjunctive therapy epilepsy trials. In the majority of instances, paresthesia did not lead to treatment discontinuation.Adjustment of Dose in Renal Failure
The major route of elimination of unchanged topiramate and its metabolites is via the kidney. Dosage adjustment may be required in patients with reduced renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).Decreased Hepatic Function
In hepatically impaired patients, topiramate should be administered with caution as the clearance of topiramate may be decreased.
The data described in the following section were obtained using topiramate tablets.Monotherapy Epilepsy
The adverse events in the controlled trial that occurred most commonly in adults in the 400 mg/day group and at a rate higher than the 50 mg/day group were: paresthesia, weight decrease, somnolence, anorexia, dizziness, and difficulty with memory NOS [see Table 5].
The adverse events in the controlled trial that occurred most commonly in children (10 years up to 16 years of age) in the 400 mg/day group and at a rate higher than the 50 mg/day group were: weight decrease, upper respiratory tract infection, paresthesia, anorexia, diarrhea, and mood problems [see Table 6].
Approximately 21% of the 159 adult patients in the 400 mg/day group who received topiramate as monotherapy in the controlled clinical trial discontinued therapy due to adverse events. Adverse events associated with discontinuing therapy (≥2%) included depression, insomnia, difficulty with memory (NOS), somnolence, paresthesia, psychomotor slowing, dizziness, and nausea.
Approximately 12% of the 57 pediatric patients in the 400 mg/day group who received topiramate as monotherapy in the controlled clinical trial discontinued therapy due to adverse events. Adverse events associated with discontinuing therapy (≥5%) included difficulty with concentration/attention.
The prescriber should be aware that these data cannot be used to predict the frequency of adverse events in the course of usual medical practice where patient characteristics and other factors may differ from those prevailing during the clinical study. Similarly, the cited frequencies cannot be directly compared with data obtained from other clinical investigations involving different treatments, uses, or investigators. Inspection of these frequencies, however, does provide the prescribing physician with a basis to estimate the relative contribution of drug and non-drug factors to the adverse event incidences in the population studied
Overdoses of topiramate have been reported. Signs and symptoms included convulsions, drowsiness, speech disturbance, blurred vision, diplopia, mentation impaired, lethargy, abnormal coordination, stupor, hypotension, abdominal pain, agitation, dizziness and depression. The clinical consequences were not severe in most cases, but deaths have been reported after poly-drug overdoses involving topiramate.
Topiramate overdose has resulted in severe metabolic acidosis (see WARNINGS).
A patient who ingested a dose between 96 and 110 g topiramate was admitted to hospital with coma lasting 20 to 24 hours followed by full recovery after 3 to 4 days.
In acute topiramate overdose, if the ingestion is recent, the stomach should be emptied immediately by lavage or by induction of emesis. Activated charcoal has been shown to adsorb topiramate in vitro. Treatment should be appropriately supportive. Hemodialysis is an effective means of removing topiramate from the body.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
In the controlled add-on trials, no correlation has been demonstrated between trough plasma concentrations of topiramate and clinical efficacy. No evidence of tolerance has been demonstrated in humans. Doses above 400 mg/day (600, 800, or 1000 mg/day) have not been shown to improve responses in dose-response studies in adults with partial onset seizures.
It is not necessary to monitor topiramate plasma concentrations to optimize topiramate therapy. On occasion, the addition of topiramate to phenytoin may require an adjustment of the dose of phenytoin to achieve optimal clinical outcome. Addition or withdrawal of phenytoin and/or carbamazepine during adjunctive therapy with topiramate may require adjustment of the dose of topiramate. Because of the bitter taste, tablets should not be broken.
Topiramate tablets can be taken without regard to meals.Monotherapy Use
The recommended dose for topiramate monotherapy in adults and children 10 years of age and older is 400 mg/day in two divided doses. Approximately 58% of patients randomized to 400 mg/day achieved this maximal dose in the monotherapy controlled trial; the mean dose achieved in the trial was 275 mg/day. The dose should be achieved by titrating according to the following schedule:
Adjunctive Therapy Use
Adults (17 Years of Age and Over) - Partial Seizures, Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, or Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
The recommended total daily dose of topiramate as adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures is 200 to 400 mg/day in two divided doses, and 400 mg/day in two divided doses as adjunctive treatment in adults with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is recommended that therapy be initiated at 25 to 50 mg/day followed by titration to an effective dose in increments of 25 to 50 mg/week. Titrating in increments of 25 mg/week may delay the time to reach an effective dose. Daily doses above 1,600 mg have not been studied.
In the study of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures the initial titration rate was slower than in previous studies; the assigned dose was reached at the end of 8 weeks (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Adjunctive Therapy Controlled Trials in Patients With Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures).Pediatric Patients (Ages 2 to 16 Years)– Partial Seizures, Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures, or Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome
The recommended total daily dose of topiramate as adjunctive therapy for patients with partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, or seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is approximately 5 to 9 mg/kg/day in two divided doses. Titration should begin at 25 mg (or less, based on a range of 1 to 3 mg/kg/day) nightly for the first week. The dosage should then be increased at 1- or 2-week intervals by increments of 1 to 3 mg/kg/day (administered in two divided doses), to achieve optimal clinical response. Dose titration should be guided by clinical outcome.
In the study of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures the initial titration rate was slower than in previous studies; the assigned dose of 6 mg/kg/day was reached at the end of 8 weeks (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Adjunctive Therapy Controlled Trials in Patients With Primary Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures).Patients with Renal Impairment:
In renally impaired subjects (creatinine clearance less than 70 mL/min/1.73 m2), one half of the usual adult dose is recommended. Such patients will require a longer time to reach steady-state at each dose.Geriatric Patients (Ages 65 Years and Over):
Dosage adjustment may be indicated in the elderly patient when impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate ≤70 mL/min/1.73 m2) is evident (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION: Patients with Renal Impairment and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Special Populations: Age, Gender, and Race).Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis:
Topiramate is cleared by hemodialysis at a rate that is 4 to 6 times greater than a normal individual. Accordingly, a prolonged period of dialysis may cause topiramate concentration to fall below that required to maintain an anti-seizure effect. To avoid rapid drops in topiramate plasma concentration during hemodialysis, a supplemental dose of topiramate may be required. The actual adjustment should take into account 1) the duration of dialysis period, 2) the clearance rate of the dialysis system being used, and 3) the effective renal clearance of topiramate in the patient being dialyzed.Patients with Hepatic Disease:
In hepatically impaired patients topiramate plasma concentrations may be increased. The mechanism is not well understood.
Topiramate tablets are available as debossed, film-coated, circular tablets in the following strengths and colors:
25 mg white (coded "S" on one side; "707" on the other)
They are supplied as follows:
50 mg tablets Bottles of 30's with Child Resistant Cap… …………NDC
Bottles of 60's with Child Resistant Cap… …………NDC 62756-711-86
Bottles of 100's with Child Resistant Cap… … … …NDC 62756-711-88
Bottles of 100's with Non Child Resistant Cap………NDC 62756-711-08
Bottles of 500's with Non Child Resistant Cap………NDC 62756-711-13
Bottles of 1000's with Non Child Resistant Cap… …NDC 62756-711-18
200 mg tablets Bottles of 30's with Child Resistant Cap… …………NDC
Information for Patients
Patients and their caregivers should be informed of the availability of a Medication Guide, and they should be instructed to read the Medication Guide prior to taking topiramate tablets. Patients should be instructed to take topiramate tablets only as prescribed.
Patients taking topiramate should be told to seek immediate medical attention if they experience blurred vision or periorbital pain.
Patients, especially pediatric patients, treated with topiramate should be monitored closely for evidence of decreased sweating and increased body temperature, especially in hot weather.
Patients, their caregivers, and families should be counseled that AEDs, including topiramate, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers.
Patients, particularly those with predisposing factors, should be instructed to maintain an adequate fluid intake in order to minimize the risk of renal stone formation (see PRECAUTIONS: Kidney Stones, for support regarding hydration as a preventative measure).
Patients should be warned about the potential for somnolence, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty concentrating, and advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on topiramate to gauge whether it adversely affects their mental performance and/or motor performance.
Additional food intake may be considered if the patient is losing weight while on this medication.
Patients should be encouraged to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. To enroll, patients can call the toll free number, 1-888-233-2334 (see PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy: Pregnancy Category C).
TOPIRAMATE - topiramate tablet, film
Read this Medication Guide before you start taking topiramate tablets and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. If you have any questions about topiramate tablets, talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
What is the most important information I should know about topiramate tablets?
Call a healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you:
Do not stop topiramate tablets without first talking to a healthcare provider.
How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions?
What is topiramate tablet?
Topiramate tablet is a prescription medicine used:
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking topiramate tablets?
Before taking topiramate tablets, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Topiramate tablets and other medicines may affect each other causing side effects.
Especially, tell your healthcare provider if you take:
Ask you healthcare provider if you are not sure if your medicine is listed above.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your healthcare provider and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine. Do not start a new medicine without talking with your healthcare provider.
How should I take topiramate tablets?
What should I avoid while taking topiramate tablets?
What are the possible side effects of topiramate tablets?
Topiramate tablets may cause serious side effects including:
See “What is the most important information I should know about topiramate tablets?”
Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the symptoms above.
The most common side effects of topiramate tablets include:
Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.
These are not all the possible side effects of topiramate tablets. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store topiramate tablets?
General information about topiramate tablets.
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use topiramate tablet for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give topiramate tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about topiramate tablets. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about topiramate tablets that is written for health professionals.
For more information, call 1-800-818-4555
What are the ingredients in topiramate tablets?
Active ingredient: topiramate
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.Revised: 11/2009Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited
Revised: 10/2010 Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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