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STERILE VANCOMYCIN HYDROCHLORIDE
vancomycin hydrochloride injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
----------Sterile Vancomycin Hydrochloride 500 mg USP Single Dose Vial
Sterile Vancomycin Hydrochloride, USP, intravenous, is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientalis) and has the molecular formula C66H75Cl2N9O24 • HCl. The molecular weight is 1485.74; 500 mg of the base is equivalent to 0.34 mmol and 1 g of the base is equivalent to 0.67 mmol. Vancomycin hydrochloride has the following structural formula:
The vials contain sterile vancomycin hydrochloride equivalent to either 500 mg or 1 g vancomycin activity. Vancomycin hydrochloride is an off-white lyophilized powder. May contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection, USP, it forms a clear solution with a pH of 4.0 (2.5 to 4.5). This product is oxygen sensitive.
Solutions of vancomycin hydrochloride reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection, USP contain no bacteriostat and are intended for use only as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required, the unused portion should be discarded. When reconstituted with sterile water for injection, further dilution is required before use. Vancomycin hydrochloride is prepared as a solution and lyophilized in its final container.
Vancomycin is poorly absorbed after oral administration; it is given intravenously for therapy of systemic infections. Intramuscular injection is painful. In subjects with normal kidney function, multiple intravenous dosing of 1 g of vancomycin (15 mg/kg) infused over 60 minutes produces mean plasma concentrations of approximately 63 mcg/mL immediately after the completion of infusion, mean plasma concentrations of approximately 23 mcg/mL two hours after infusion, and mean plasma concentrations of approximately 8 mcg/mL eleven hours after the end of the infusion. Multiple dosing of 500 mg infused over 30 minutes produces mean plasma concentrations of about 49 mcg/mL at the completion of infusion, mean plasma concentrations of about 19 mcg/mL two hours after infusion, and mean plasma concentrations of about 10 mcg/mL six hours after infusion. The plasma concentrations during multiple dosing are similar to those after a single dose. The mean elimination half-life of vancomycin from plasma is 4 to 6 hours in subjects with normal renal function. In the first 24 hours, about 75% of an administered dose of vancomycin is excreted in urine by glomerular filtration. Mean plasma clearance is about 0.058 L/kg/hr, and mean renal clearance is about 0.048 L/kg/hr. Renal dysfunction slows excretion of vancomycin. In anephric patients, the average half-life of elimination is 7.5 days. The distribution coefficient is from 0.3 to 0.43 L/kg. There is no apparent metabolism of the drug. About 60% of an intraperitoneal dose of vancomycin administered during peritoneal dialysis is absorbed systemically in six hours. Serum concentrations of about 10 mcg/mL are achieved by intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg of vancomycin. However, the safety and efficacy of the intraperitoneal use of vancomycin has not been established in adequate and well-controlled
Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms
Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms
Anaerobic gram-positive microorganisms
For testing aerobic microorganisms(a) other than streptococci:
For testing streptococci(b) other than Streptococcus pneumoniae:
(b) Interpretative criteria applicable only to tests performed by broth microdilution method using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2 to 5% lysed horse blood1.
The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any categories other than “Susceptible”. Strains yielding MIC results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing. A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected. Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard vancomycin powder should provide the following MIC values:
Diffusion Techniques-Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 30-mcg vancomycin to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to vancomycin.
Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30-mcg vancomycin disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic microorganisms other than enterococci and streptococci:
(b) When testing for enterococci resistance to vancomycin, plates should be held for a full 24 hours and examined using transmitted light. The presence of a haze or any growth within the zone of inhibition indicates resistance. Those enterococci with intermediate zones of inhibition should be tested by a standardized procedure based on a dilution method1 (broth or agar) or equivalent.
For testing streptococcic other than Streptococcus pneumoniae:
obtained in the disk test with the MIC for vancomycin. As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to
control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 30-mcg vancomycin disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:
Indications and Usage
Vancomycin is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (betalactam-resistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancomycin is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly. Vancomycin is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin, and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures. Vancomycin has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by Streptococcus viridans or S. bovis. For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis), vancomycin has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.
Sterile vancomycin hydrochloride, USP is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.
Rapid bolus administration (e.g., over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock, and, rarely, cardiac arrest. Vancomycin should be administered over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in a prompt cessation of these reactions. Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Vancomycin should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency because the risk of toxicity is appreciably increased by high, prolonged blood concentrations. Dosage of vancomycin must be adjusted for patients with renal dysfunction (see PRECAUTIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Information for Patients
Infusion-Related Events: During or soon after rapid infusion of vancomycin, patients may develop anaphylactoid reactions, including hypotension (see ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY), wheezing, dyspnea, urticaria, or pruritus. Rapid infusion may also cause flushing of the upper body (‘‘Red Neck’’) or pain and muscle spasm of the chest and back. These reactions usually resolve within 20 minutes but may persist for several hours. Such events are infrequent if vancomycin is given by a slow infusion over 60 minutes. In studies of normal volunteers, infusion-related events did not occur when vancomycin was administered at a rate of 10 mg/min or less.
Nephrotoxicity: Renal failure, principally manifested by increased serum creatinine or BUN concentrations, especially in patients administered large doses of vancomycin, has been reported rarely. Cases of interstitial nephritis have been reported rarely. Most of these have occurred in patients who were given aminoglycosides concomitantly or who had preexisting kidney dysfunction. When vancomycin was discontinued, azotemia resolved in most patients. Gastrointestinal: Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).
Ototoxicity: A few dozen cases of hearing loss associated with vancomycin have been reported. Most of these patients had kidney dysfunction or a preexisting hearing loss, or were receiving concomitant treatment with an ototoxic drug. Vertigo, dizziness, and tinnitus have been reported rarely.
Hematopoietic: Reversible neutropenia, usually starting one week or more after onset of therapy with vancomycin or after a total dosage of more than 25 g, has been reported for several dozen patients. Neutropenia appears to be promptly reversible when vancomycin is discontinued. Thrombocytopenia has rarely been reported. Although a causal relationship has not been established, reversible agranulocytosis (granulocytes less than 500/mm3) has been reported rarely.
Phlebitis: Inflammation at the injection site has been reported.
Miscellaneous: Infrequently, patients have been reported to have had anaphylaxis, drug fever, nausea, chills, eosinophilia, rashes including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and vasculitis in association with administration of vancomycin.
Supportive care is advised, with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Vancomycin is poorly removed by dialysis. Hemofiltration and hemoperfusion with polysulfone resin have been reported to result in increased vancomycin clearance. The median lethal intravenous dose is 319 mg/kg in rats and 400 mg/kg in mice. To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.
Dosage and Administration
Sterile Vancomycin Hydrochloride, USP is intended for intravenous use. In selected patients in need of fluid restriction, a concentration up to 10 mg/mL may be used; use of such higher concentrations may increase the risk of infusion-related events. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Infusion-related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.
Patients with Normal Renal Function
Neonates: In pediatric patients up to the age of 1 month, the total daily intravenous dosage may be lower. In neonates, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg is suggested, followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for neonates in the first week of life and every eight hours thereafter up to the age of one month. Each dose should be administered over 60 minutes. In premature infants, vancomycin clearance decreases as postconceptional age decreases. Therefore, longer dosing intervals may be necessary in premature infants. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.
Patients with Impaired Renal Function and Elderly Patients
DOSAGE TABLE FOR VANCOMYCIN IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION (Adapted from Moellering et al) 3
The table is not valid for functionally anephric patients. For such patients, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight should be given to achieve prompt therapeutic serum concentrations. The dose required to maintain stable concentrations is 1.9 mg/kg/24 h. In patients with marked renal impairment, it may be more convenient to give maintenance doses of 250 to 1000 mg once every several days rather than administering the drug on a daily basis. In anuria, a dose of 1000 mg every 7 to 10 days has been recommended. When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula (based on sex, weight, and age of the patient) may be used to calculate creatinine clearance. Calculated creatinine clearances (mL/min) are only estimates. The creatinine clearance should be measured promptly.
The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administration by the intrathecal (intralumbar or intraventricular) routes have not been established.
Intermittent infusion is the recommended method of administration.
PREPARATION AND STABILITY
At the time of use, reconstitute by adding either 10 mL of Sterile Water for Injection to the 500-mg vial or 20 mL of Sterile Water for Injection to the 1-g vial of dry, sterile vancomycin powder. FURTHER DILUTION IS REQUIRED. After reconstitution with Sterile Water for Injection, 5% Dextrose Injection, or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, the vials may be stored in a refrigerator for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Reconstituted solutions containing 500 mg of vancomycin must be diluted with at least 100 mL of diluent. Reconstituted solutions containing 1 g must be diluted with at least 200 mL of diluent. The desired dose, diluted in this manner, should be administered by intermittent intravenous infusion over a period of at least 60 minutes.
Compatibility with Other Drugs and Intravenous Fluids
Solutions that are diluted with 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection may be stored in a refrigerator for 14 days without significant loss of potency. Solutions that are diluted with the following infusion fluids may be stored in a refrigerator for 96 hours:
5% Dextrose Injection, USP
5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP
Lactated Ringer’s and 5% Dextrose Injection, USP
Normosol®-M and 5% Dextrose
Vancomycin solution has a low pH and may cause chemical or physical instability when it is mixed with other compounds. Mixtures of solutions of vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics have been shown to be physically incompatible. The likelihood of precipitation increases with higher concentrations of vancomycin. It is recommended to adequately flush the intravenous lines between the administration of these antibiotics. It is also recommended to dilute solutions of vancomycin to 5 mg/mL or less. Although intravitreal injection is not an approved route of administration for vancomycin, precipitation has been reported after intravitreal injection of vancomycin and ceftazidime for endophthalmitis using different syringes and needles. The precipitates dissolved gradually, with complete clearing of the vitreous cavity over two months and with improvement of visual acuity. Prior to administration, parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution or container permits.
For Oral Administration
Oral vancomycin is used in treating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis caused by C. difficile and for staphylococcal enterocolitis. Vancomycin is not effective by the oral route for other types of infections. The usual adult total daily dosage is 500 mg to 2 g given in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage in pediatric patients is 40 mg/kg of body weight in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage should not exceed 2 g. The appropriate dose may be diluted in 1 oz of water and given to the patient to drink. Common flavoring syrups may be added to the solution to improve the taste for oral administration. The diluted solution may be administered via a nasogastric tube.
Sterile Vancomycin Hydrochloride, USP is supplied as a sterile powder in single-dose fliptop vials that contain the vancomycin equivalent of either 500 mg (List No. 4332) or 1 g (List No. 6533).
In animal studies, hypotension and bradycardia occurred in dogs receiving an intravenous infusion of vancomycin, 25 mg/kg, at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and an infusion rate of 13.3 mL/min.
1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically-Fourth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M7-A4, Vol. 17, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 1997.
2. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests - Sixth Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A6, Vol. 17, No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 1997.
3. Moellering RC, Krogstad DJ, Greenblatt DJ: Vancomycin therapy in patients with impaired renal function: A nomogram for dosage. Ann Inter Med 1981;94:343.
Revised: December, 2005
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Revised: 05/2011 General Injectables & Vaccines, Inc
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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