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Name:Ofloxacin
Manufacturer:Apotex Inc.
Category:Prescription Marketed Drugs


Ofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3%

OFLOXACIN - ofloxacin solution 
Apotex Inc.

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Ofloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3%

DESCRIPTION

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% is a sterile ophthalmic solution. It is a fluorinated carboxyquinolone anti-infective for topical ophthalmic use.

Chemical Name:

(±)-9-Fluoro-2, 3-dihydro-3-methyl-10-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4 benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid.

Image from Drug Label Content

Contains: Active: Ofloxacin 0.3% (3 mg/mL).

Preservative: benzalkonium chloride (0.005%). Inactives: Hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water for injection. Sodium hydroxide may be added to adjust the pH.

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% is unbuffered and formulated with a pH of 6.4 (range - 6.0 to 6.8). It has an osmolality of 300 mOsm/kg. Ofloxacin is a fluorinated 4-quinolone which differs from other fluorinated 4-quinolones in that there is a six member (pyridobenzoxazine) ring from positions 1 to 8 of the basic ring structure.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacokinetics:

Serum, urine and tear concentrations of ofloxacin were measured in 30 healthy women at various time points during a ten-day course of treatment with ofloxacin ophthalmicsolution. The mean serum ofloxacin concentration ranged from 0.4 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL. Maximum ofloxacin concentration increased from 1.1 ng/mL on day one to 1.9 ng/mL on day 11 after QID dosing for 10 1/2 days. Maximum serum ofloxacin concentrations after ten days of topical ophthalmic dosing were more than 1000 times lower than those reported after standard oral doses of ofloxacin.

Tear ofloxacin concentrations ranged from 5.7 to 31 μg/g during the 40 minute period following the last dose on day 11. Mean tear concentration measured four hours after topical ophthalmic dosing was 9.2 μg/g.

Corneal tissue concentrations of 4.4 μg/mL were observed four hours after beginning topical ocular application of two drops ofofloxacinophthalmic solution every 30 minutes. Ofloxacin was excreted in the urine primarily unmodified.

Microbiology:

Ofloxacin has in vitro activity against a broad range of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Ofloxacin is bactericidal at concentrations equal to or slightly greater than inhibitory concentrations. Ofloxacin is thought to exert a bactericidal effect on susceptible bacterial cells by inhibiting DNA gyrase, an essential bacterial enzyme which is a critical catalyst in the duplication, transcription, and repair of bacterial DNA.

Cross-resistance has been observed between ofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. There is generally no cross-resistance between ofloxacin and other classes of antibacterial agents such as beta-lactams or aminoglycosides.

Ofloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and clinically, in conjunctival and/or corneal ulcer infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

*Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections

AEROBES, GRAM-POSITIVE: AEROBES, GRAM-NEGATIVE:
    Staphylococcus aureus     Enterobacter cloacae
    Staphylococcus epidermidis     Haemophilus influenzae
    Streptococcus pneumoniae     Proteus mirabilis
ANAEROBIC SPECIES:     Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Propionibacterium acnes     Serratia marcescens*

The safety and effectiveness of ofloxacin ophthalmic solution in treating ophthalmologic infections due to the following organisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.ofloxacinophthalmic solution has been shown to be active in vitro against most strains of these organisms but the clinical significance in ophthalmologic infections is unknown.

AEROBES, GRAM-POSITIVE:
    Enterococcus faecalis     Staphylococcus hominus
    Listeria monocytogenes     Staphylococcus simulans
    Staphylococcus capitis     Streptococcus pyogenes
AEROBES, GRAM-NEGATIVE:
    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus     Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. lwoffii     Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
    Citrobacter diversus     Moraxella lacunata
    Citrobacter freundii     Morganella morganii
    Enterobacter aerogenes     Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    Enterobacter agglomerans     Pseudomonas acidovorans
    Escherichia coli     Pseudomonas fluorescens
    Haemophilus parainfluenzae     Shigella sonnei
    Klebsiella oxytoca
OTHER:
    Chlamydia trachomatis

Clinical Studies:

Conjunctivitis:

In a randomized, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial, ofloxacinophthalmic solution was superior to its vehicle after 2 days of treatment in patients with conjunctivitis and positive conjunctival cultures. Clinical outcomes for the trial demonstrated a clinical improvement rate of 86% (54/63) for the ofloxacin treated group versus 72% (48/67) for the placebo treated group after 2 days of therapy. Microbiological outcomes for the same clinical trial demonstrated an eradication rate for causative pathogens of 65% (41/63) for the ofloxacin treated group versus 25% (17/67) for the vehicle treated group after 2 days of therapy. Please note that microbiologic eradication does not always correlate with clinical outcome in anti-infective trials.

Corneal Ulcers:

In a randomized, double-masked, multi-center clinical trial of 140 subjects with positive cultures, subjects treated with ofloxacin ophthalmic solution had an overall clinical success rate (complete re-epithelialization and no progression of the infiltrate for two consecutive visits) of 82% (61/74) compared to 80% (53/66) for the fortified antibiotic group, consisting of 1.5% tobramycin and 10% cefazolin solutions. The median time to clinical success was 11 days for the ofloxacin treated group and 10 days for the fortified treatment group.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the following bacteria in the conditions listed below:

*Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections

CONJUNCTIVITIS:
    Gram-positive bacteria:     Gram-negative bacteria:
        Staphylococcus aureus         Enterobacter cloacae
        Staphylococcus epidermidis         Haemophilus influenzae
        Streptococcus pneumoniae         Proteus mirabilis
        Pseudomonas aeruginosa
CORNEAL ULCERS:
    Gram-positive bacteria:     Gram-negative bacteria:
        Staphylococcus aureus         Pseudomonas aeruginosa
        Staphylococcus epidermidis         Serratia marcescens*
        Streptococcus pneumoniae     Anaerobic species:
        Propionibacterium acnes

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to ofloxacin, to other quinolones, or to any of the components in this medication.

WARNINGS

NOT FOR INJECTION.

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution should not be injected subconjunctivally, nor should it be introduced directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving systemic quinolones, including ofloxacin. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, angioedema (including laryngeal, pharyngeal or facial edema), airway obstruction, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. A rare occurrence of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, which progressed to toxic epidermal necrolysis, has been reported in a patient who was receiving topical ophthalmic ofloxacin. If an allergic reaction to ofloxacin occurs, discontinue the drug. Serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require immediate emergency treatment. Oxygen and airway management, including intubation should be administered as clinically indicated.

PRECAUTIONS

General:

As with other anti-infectives, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs discontinue use and institute alternative therapy. Whenever clinical judgement dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining. Ofloxacin should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity reaction.

The systemic administration of quinolones, including ofloxacin, has led to lesions or erosions of the cartilage in weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. Ofloxacin, administered systemically at 10 mg/kg/day in young dogs (equivalent to 110 times the maximum recommended daily adult ophthalmic dose) has been associated with these types of effects.

Information for Patients:

Avoid contaminating the applicator tip with material from the eye, fingers or other source.

Systemic quinolones, including ofloxacin, have been associated with hypersensitivity reactions, even following a single dose. Discontinue use immediately and contact your physician at the first sign of a rash or allergic reaction.

Drug Interactions:

Specific drug interaction studies have not been conducted with ofloxacin ophthalmic solution. However, the systemic administration of some quinolones has been shown to elevate plasma concentrations of theophylline, interfere with the metabolism of caffeine, and enhance the effects of the oral anticoagulant warfarin and its derivatives, and has been associated with transient elevations in serum creatinine in patients receiving cyclosporine concomitantly.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility:

Long term studies to determine the carcinogenic potential of ofloxacin have not been conducted.

Ofloxacin was not mutagenic in the Ames test, in vitro and in vivo cytogenic assay, sister chromatid exchange assay (Chinese hamster and human cell lines), unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay using human fibroblasts, the dominant lethal assay, or mouse micronucleus assay. Ofloxacin was positive in the UDS test using rat hepatocyte, and in the mouse lymphoma assay.

In fertility studies in rats, ofloxacin did not affect male or female fertility or morphological or reproductive performance at oral dosing up to 360 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 4000 times the maximum recommended daily ophthalmic dose).

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic Effects:

Pregnancy Category C: Ofloxacin has been shown to have an embryocidal effect in rats and in rabbits when given in doses of 810 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 9000 times the maximum recommended daily ophthalmic dose) and 160 mg/kg/day (equivalent to 1800 times the maximum recommended daily ophthalmic dose). These dosages resulted in decreased fetal body weight and increased fetal mortality in rats and rabbits, respectively. Minor fetal skeletal variations were reported in rats receiving doses of 810 mg/kg/day. Ofloxacin has not been shown to be teratogenic at doses as high as 810 mg/kg/day and 160 mg/kg/day when administered to pregnant rats and rabbits, respectively.

Nonteratogenic Effects:

Additional studies in rats with doses up to 360 mg/kg/day during late gestation showed no adverse effect on late fetal development, labor, delivery, lactation, neonatal viability, or growth of the newborn.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers:

In nursing women a single 200 mg oral dose resulted in concentrations of ofloxacin in milk which were similar to those found in plasma. It is not known whether ofloxacin is excreted in human milk following topical ophthalmic administration. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from ofloxacin in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use:

Safety and effectiveness in infants below the age of one year have not been established.

Quinolones, including ofloxacin, have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals after oral administration; however, topical ocular administration of ofloxacin to immature animals has not shown any arthropathy. There is no evidence that the ophthalmic dosage form of ofloxacin has any effect on weight bearing joints.

Geriatric Use:

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Ophthalmic Use:

The most frequently reported drug-related adverse reaction was transient ocular burning or discomfort. Other reported reactions include stinging, redness, itching, chemical conjunctivitis/keratitis, ocular/periocular/facial edema, foreign body sensation, photophobia, blurred vision, tearing, dryness, and eye pain. Rare reports of dizziness and nausea have been reported.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended dosage regimen for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis is:

Days 1 and 2 Instill one to two drops every two to four hours in the affected eye(s).
Days 3 through 7 Instill one to two drops four times daily.
The recommended dosage regimen for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcer is:
Days 1 and 2 Instill one to two drops into the affected eye every 30 minutes, while awake. Awaken at approximately four and six hours after retiring and instill one to two drops.
Days 3 through 7 to 9 Instill one to two drops hourly, while awake.
Days 7 to 9 through
treatment completion Instill one to two drops, four times daily.

HOW SUPPLIED

Ofloxacin ophthalmic solution 0.3% is supplied sterile in plastic dropper bottles of the following sizes:

5mL - NDC 60505-0560-0 

10mL - NDC 60505-0560-1

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted 15 - 30°C (59 - 86°F).

Manufactured by:                                Manufactured for:

Apotex Inc.                                         Apotex Corp.

Toronto, Ontario                                  Weston, FL 33326

Canada M9L 1T9

218956                                               April 2004


OFLOXACIN 
ofloxacin solution
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:60505-0560
Route of Administration OPHTHALMIC DEA Schedule     
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
ofloxacin (ofloxacin) Active 3 MILLIGRAM  In 1 MILLILITER
sodium chloride Inactive  
water Inactive  
hydrochloric acid Inactive  
sodium hydroxide Inactive  
benzalkonium chloride Inactive  
Product Characteristics
Color      Score     
Shape Size
Flavor Imprint Code
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 60505-0560-0 5 mL (MILLILITER) In 1 BOTTLE, DROPPER None
2 60505-0560-1 10 mL (MILLILITER) In 1 BOTTLE, DROPPER None

Revised: 11/2008 Apotex Inc.



Source: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine


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