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doxycycline hyclate capsule
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----------ocudox Convenience Kit
Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic synthetically derived from oxytetracycline, and is available as doxycycline hyclate (doxycycline hydrochloride hemiethanolate hemihydrate) capsules and tablets for oral administration. The chemical designation of this light-yellow crystalline powder is alpha-6-deoxy-5-oxytetracycline. Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form. Each capsule for oral administration contains 50 mg or 100 mg doxycycline hyclate, equivalent to 50 mg or 100 mg doxycycline (anhydrous). Inactive ingredients for capsules are: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, D and C Red #28, FD and C Blue #1, gelatin, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, titanium dioxide. Each tablet for oral administration contains 100 mg doxycycline hyclate, equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline. Inactive ingredients for tablets are: anhydrous lactose, carnauba wax, croscarmellose sodium, D and C Yellow #10 aluminum lake, FD and C Red #40 aluminum lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, titanium dioxide.
Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degree. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile, and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form. Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration. Following a 200 mg dose, normal adult volunteers averaged peak serum levels of 2.6 mcg/mL of doxycycline at 2 hours decreasing to 1.45 mcg/mL at 24 hours. Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40%/72 hours in individuals with normal function (creatinine clearance about 75 mL/min.). This percentage excretion may fall as low as 1–5%/72 hours in individuals with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min.). Studies have shown no significant difference in serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18–22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function. Hemodialysis does not alter serum half-life. Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta and are found in fetal tissues.
The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including doxycycline, have a similar antimicrobial spectrum of activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Cross-resistance of these organisms to tetracyclines is common.Gram-Negative Bacteria
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis)
Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensis)
Vibrio cholerae (formerly Vibrio comma)
Because many strains of the following groups of gram-negative microorganisms have been shown to be
resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended:
Acinetobacter species (formerly Mima species and Herellea species)
Because many strains of the following groups of gram-positive microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended. Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracycline drugs. Therefore, tetracycline should not be used for streptococcal disease unless the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible.
Enterococcus group (Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium)
Alpha-hemolytic streptococci (viridans group)
Rickettsiae Clostridium species
Chlamydia psittaci Fusobacterium fusiforme
Chlamydia trachomatis Actinomyces species
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Bacillus anthracis
Ureaplasma urealyticum Propionibacterium acnes
Borrelia recurrentis Entamoeba species
Treponema pallidum Balantidium coli
Treponema pertenue Plasmodium falciparum
Doxycycline has been found to be active against the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum but not against the gametocytes of P. falciparum. The precise mechanism of action of the drug is not known.
Susceptibility tests: Diffusion techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters give the most precise estimate of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial agents. One such standard procedure1 which has been recommended for use with disks to test susceptibility of organisms to doxycycline uses the 30-mcg tetracycline-class disk or the 30-mcg doxycycline disk. Interpretation involves the correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for tetracycline or doxycycline, respectively.
Reports from the laboratory giving results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 30-mcg tetracycline-class disk or the 30-mcg doxycycline disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
Zone Diameter (mm) Interpretation
≥19 ≥16 Susceptible
15–18 13–15 Intermediate
≤14 ≤12 Resistant
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited by generally achievable blood levels. A report of “Intermediate” suggests that the organism would be susceptible if a high dosage is used or if the infection is confined to tissues and fluids in which high antimicrobial levels are attained. A report of “Resistant” indicates that achievable concentrations are unlikely to be inhibitory, and other therapy should be selected.
Standardized procedures require the use of laboratory control organisms. The 30-mcg tetracycline-class disk or the 30-mcg doxycycline disk should give the following zone diameters:
Organism Zone Diameter (mm)
E. coli ATCC 25922 18–25 18–24
S. aureus ATCC 25923 19–28 23–29
Dilution techniques: Use a standardized dilution method2 (broth, agar, microdilution) or equivalent with
tetracycline powder. The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
MIC (mcg/mL) Interpretation
As with standard diffusion techniques, dilution methods require the use of laboratory control organisms.
Standard tetracycline powder should provide the following MIC values:
Organism MIC (mcg/mL)
E. coli ATCC 25922 1.0–4.0
S. aureus ATCC 29213 0.25–1.0
E. faecalis ATCC 29212 8–32
P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 8–32
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:
Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.
Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.
THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs, but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP, EXCEPT FOR ANTHRAX, INCLUDING INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX (POST-EXPOSURE), UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.
Patients taking doxycycline for malaria prophylaxis should be advised:
— that no present-day antimalarial agent, including doxycycline, guarantees protection against malaria.
— to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes by using personal protective measures that help avoid contact with mosquitoes, especially from dusk to dawn (e.g., staying in well-screened areas, using mosquito nets, covering the body with clothing, and using an effective insect repellent).
— that doxycycline prophylaxis:
— should begin 1–2 days before travel to the malarious area,
— should be continued daily while in the malarious area and after leaving the malarious area,
— should be continued for 4 further weeks to avoid development of malaria after returning from an
— should not exceed 4 months.
All patients taking doxycycline should be advised:
— to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving doxycycline and to discontinue therapy if phototoxicity (e.g., skin eruption, etc.) occurs. Sunscreen or sunblock should be considered (See WARNINGS.)
— to drink fluids liberally along with doxycycline to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.
(See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
— that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taken with foods, especially those which contain
calcium. However, the absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion
of food or milk. (See DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
— that the absorption of tetracyclines is reduced when taking bismuth subsalicylate (See DRUG INTERACTIONS.)
— that the use of doxycycline might increase the incidence of vaginal candidiasis.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including doxycycline hyclate should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When doxycycline hyclate is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and
(2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by doxycycline hyclate or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued.
Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the
antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
In venereal disease, when co-existent syphilis is suspected, dark field examinations should be done before treatment is started and the blood serology repeated monthly for at least 4 months.
In long-term therapy, periodic laboratory evaluation of organ systems, including hematopoietic, renal, and hepatic studies, should be performed.
Because tetracyclines have been shown to depress plasma prothrombin activity, patients who are on anticoagulant therapy may require downward adjustment of their anticoagulant dosage.
Since bacteriostatic drugs may interfere with the bactericidal action of penicillin, it is advisable to avoid giving tetracyclines in conjunction with penicillin.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, and ironcontaining preparations.
Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by bismuth subsalicylate.
Barbiturates, carbamazepine, and phenytoin decrease the half-life of doxycycline.
The concurrent use of tetracycline and Penthrane® (methoxyflurane) has been reported to result in fatal renal toxicity.
Concurrent use of tetracycline may render oral contraceptives less effective.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
False elevations of urinary catecholamine levels may occur due to interference with the fluorescence test.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of doxycycline have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibiotics, oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors), and minocycline (thyroid tumors).
Likewise, although mutagenicity studies of doxycycline have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline).
Doxycycline administered orally at dosage levels as high as 250 mg/kg/day had no apparent effect on the fertility of female rats. Effect on male fertility has not been studied.
Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category D:
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies on the use of doxycycline in pregnant women. The vast
majority of reported experience with doxycycline during human pregnancy is short-term, first trimester exposure. There are no human data available to assess the effects of long-term therapy of doxycycline in pregnant women such as that proposed for treatment of anthrax exposure. An expert review of published data on experiences with doxycycline use during pregnancy by TERIS – the Teratogen Information System – concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (the quantity and quality of data were assessed as limited to fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no riska. A casecontrol study (18,515 mothers of infants with congenital anomalies and 32,804 mothers of infants with no congenital anomalies) shows a weak but marginally statistically significant association with total malformations and use of doxycycline anytime during pregnancy. Sixty-three (0.19%) of the controls and fifty-six (0.30%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline. This association was not seen when the analysis was confined to maternal treatment during the period of organogenesis (i.e., in the second and third months of gestation) with the exception of a marginal relationship with neural tube defect based on only two exposed casesb.
A small prospective study of 81 pregnancies describes 43 pregnant women treated for 10 days with doxycycline during early first trimester. All mothers reported their exposed infants were normal at 1 year of agec.
Nonteratogenic Effects: (See WARNINGS).
Labor and Delivery
The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk; however, the extent of absorption of tetracyclines, including doxycycline, by the breastfed infant is not known. Short-term use by lactating women is not necessarily contraindicated; however, the effects of prolonged exposure to doxycycline in breast milk are unknownd. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from doxycycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. (See WARNINGS.)
See WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects of the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.
THE USUAL DOSAGE AND FREQUENCY OF ADMINISTRATION OF DOXYCYCLINE DIFFERS FROM THAT OF THE OTHER TETRACYCLINES. EXCEEDING THE RECOMMENDED DOSAGE MAY RESULT IN AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SIDE EFFECTS. Adults: The usual dose of oral doxycycline is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day. The maintenance dose may be administered as a single dose or as 50 mg every 12 hours.
Doxycycline hyclate capsules USP equivalent to 50 mg doxycycline (No. 2 opaque white and light blue capsule) in:
ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY AND ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY
Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in minipigs by doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO4, and methacycline; in dogs by doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline.
1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk
Revised: 02/2011 OCuSOFT, INC.
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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