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Name:Naproxen
Manufacturer:Watson Labs
Category:Prescription Marketed Drugs


Naproxen Tablets USP Revised: August 2005 Rx only

NAPROXEN - naproxen tablet 
Watson Labs

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Naproxen Tablets USP
Revised: August 2005
Rx only

BOXED WARNING

Cardiovascular Risk

  • NSAIDs 1 may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk. (See WARNINGS and CLINICAL TRIALS.)

  • Naproxen is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).


1
Throughout this package insert, the term NSAID refers to a non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Gastrointestinal Risk

  • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events. (See WARNINGS.)

DESCRIPTION

Naproxen is a member of the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

The chemical name for naproxen is (+)-(S)-6-Methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid. It has the following structural formula:

Image from Drug Label Content

C14H1403           MW=230.26

Naproxen is a practically odorless, white to off-white, crystalline substance. It is lipid soluble, practically insoluble in water at low pH and freely soluble in water at high pH. The octanol/water partition coefficient of naproxen at pH 7.4 is 1.6 to 1.8.

Each tablet for oral administration contains 250 mg, 375 mg or 500 mg of naproxen. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, povidone, synthetic black iron oxide (375 mg only), synthetic red iron oxide (375 mg only) and synthetic yellow iron oxide (375 mg only).

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Pharmacodynamics

Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. The mechanism of action of the naproxen anion, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

Pharmacokinetics

Naproxen itself is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95%. The elimination half-life of naproxen ranges from 12 to 17 hours. Steady-state levels of naproxen are reached in 4 to 5 days and the degree of naproxen accumulation is consistent with this half-life.

Absorption

After administration of naproxen tablets, peak plasma levels are attained in 2 to 4 hours.

When 500 mg of naproxen tablets were given twice a day to fasted subjects (n=24), the following was observed after 1 week of dosing:

*mean value (coefficient of variation)
Cmax (mcg/mL) 97.4 (13%)*
Tmax (hours) 1.9 (61%)*
AUC0-12 hr (mcg•hr/mL) 767 (15%)*

Distribution

Naproxen has a volume of distribution of 0.16 L/kg. At therapeutic levels naproxen is greater than 99% albumin bound. At doses of naproxen greater than 500 mg/day there is less than proportional increase in plasma levels due to an increase in clearance caused by saturation of plasma protein binding at higher doses (average trough Css 36.5, 49.2, and 56.4 mg/L with 500, 1000, and 1500 mg daily doses of naproxen). The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers).

Metabolism

Naproxen is extensively metabolized to 6-0-desmethyl naproxen and both parent and metabolites do not induce metabolizing enzymes.

Excretion

The clearance of naproxen is 0.13 mL/min/kg. Approximately 95% of the naproxen from any dose is excreted in the urine, primarily as naproxen (less than 1%), 6-0-desmethyl naproxen (less than 1%), or their conjugates (66 - 92%). The plasma half-life of the naproxen anion in humans ranges from 12 to 17 hours. The corresponding half-lives of both naproxen’s metabolites and conjugates are shorter than 12 hours and their rates of excretion have been found to coincide closely with the rate of naproxen disappearance from the plasma. In patients with renal failure metabolites may accumulate (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

Special Populations

Pediatric Patients: In pediatric patients of 5 to 16 years with arthritis, plasma naproxen levels following a 5 mg/kg single dose of naproxen oral suspension were found to be similar to those found in normal adults following a 500 mg dose. The terminal half-life appears to be similar in pediatric and adult patients. Pharmacokinetic studies of naproxen were not performed in pediatric patients younger than 5 years of age.

Geriatric Patients: Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly, although the unbound fraction is less than 1% of the total naproxen concentration. Unbound trough naproxen concentrations in elderly subjects have been reported to range from 0.12% to 0.19% of total naproxen concentration, compared with 0.05% to 0.075% in younger subjects. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, although it is possible that the increase in free naproxen concentration could be associated with an increase in the rate of adverse events per a given dosage in some elderly patients.

Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.

Hepatic Insufficiency: Naproxen pharmacokinetics have not been determined in subjects with hepatic insufficiency.

Renal Insufficiency: Naproxen pharmacokinetics have not been determined in subjects with renal insufficiency. Given that naproxen, its metabolites, and conjugates are primarily excreted by the kidney, the potential exists for naproxen metabolites to accumulate in the presence of renal insufficiency. Elimination of naproxen is decreased in patients with severe renal impairment. Naproxen-containing products are not recommended for use in patients with moderate to severe and severe renal impairment (creatinine < 30 ml/min) (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

Clinical Studies

General Information

Naproxen has been studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, juvenile arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis and bursitis, and acute gout. Improvement in patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis was demonstrated by a reduction in joint swelling, a reduction in duration of morning stiffness, a reduction in disease activity as assessed by both the investigator and patient, and by increased mobility as demonstrated by a reduction in walking time. Generally, response to naproxen has not been found to be dependent on age, sex, severity or duration of rheumatoid arthritis.

In patients with osteoarthritis, the therapeutic action of naproxen has been shown by a reduction in joint pain or tenderness, an increase in range of motion in knee joints, increased mobility as demonstrated by a reduction in walking time, and improvement in capacity to perform activities of daily living impaired by the disease.

In a clinical trial comparing standard formulations of naproxen 375 mg BID (750 mg a day) versus 750 mg BID (1500 mg a day), 9 patients in the 750 mg group terminated prematurely because of adverse events. Nineteen patients in the 1500 mg group terminated prematurely because of adverse events. Most of these adverse events were gastrointestinal events.

In clinical studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and juvenile arthritis, naproxen has been shown to be comparable to aspirin and indomethacin in controlling the aforementioned measures of disease activity, but the frequency and severity of the milder gastrointestinal adverse effects (nausea, dyspepsia, heartburn) and nervous system adverse effects (tinnitus, dizziness, lightheadedness) were less in naproxen treated patients than in those treated with aspirin or indomethacin.

In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, naproxen has been shown to decrease night pain, morning stiffness and pain at rest. In double-blind studies the drug was shown to be as effective as aspirin, but with fewer side effects.

In patients with acute gout, a favorable response to naproxen was shown by significant clearing of inflammatory changes (e.g., decrease in swelling, heat) within 24 to 48 hours, as well as by relief of pain and tenderness.

Naproxen has been studied in patients with mild to moderate pain secondary to post-operative, orthopedic, post-partum episiotomy, and uterine contraction pain and dysmenorrhea. Onset of pain relief can begin within one hour in patients taking naproxen. Analgesic effect was shown by such measures as reduction of pain intensity scores, increase in pain relief scores, decrease in numbers of patients requiring additional analgesic medication, and delay in time to remedication. The analgesic effect has been found to last for up to 12 hours.

Naproxen may be used safely in combination with gold salts and/or corticosteroids; however, in controlled clinical trials, when added to the regimen of patients receiving corticosteroids it did not appear to cause greater improvement over that seen with corticosteroids alone. Whether naproxen has a “steroid-sparing” effect has not been adequately studied. When added to the regimen of patients receiving gold salts, naproxen did result in greater improvement. Its use in combination with salicylates is not recommended because there is evidence that aspirin increases the rate of excretion of naproxen and data are inadequate to demonstrate that naproxen and aspirin produce greater improvement over that achieved with aspirin alone. In addition, as with other NSAIDS the combination may result in higher frequency of adverse events than demonstrated for either product alone.

In 51Cr blood loss and gastroscopy studies with normal volunteers, daily administration of 1000 mg of naproxen has been demonstrated to cause statistically significantly less gastric bleeding and erosion than 3250 mg of aspirin.

Geriatric Patients

The hepatic and renal tolerability of long-term naproxen administration was studied in two double blind clinical trials involving 586 patients. Of the patients studied, 98 patients were age 65 and older and 10 of the 98 patients were age 75 and older. Naproxen was administered at doses of 375 mg twice daily or 750 mg twice daily for up to 6 months. Transient abnormalities of laboratory tests assessing hepatic and renal function were noted in some patients, although there were no differences noted in the occurrence of abnormal values among different age groups.

Individualization of Dosage

Onset of pain relief can begin within one hour in patients taking naproxen.

The recommended strategy for initiating therapy is to choose a formulation and a starting dose likely to be effective for the patient and then adjust the dosage based on observation of benefit and/or adverse events. A lower dose should be considered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment or in elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS).

Analgesia/Dysmenorrhea/Bursitis and Tendinitis: Because the sodium salt of naproxen is more rapidly absorbed, naproxen sodium is recommended for the management of acute painful conditions when prompt onset of pain relief is desired. Naproxen may also be used for treatment of acute pain and dysmenorrhea. The recommended starting dose of naproxen is 500 mg followed by 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 6 to 8 hours, as required. The initial dose should not exceed 1250 mg of naproxen. Thereafter, the total daily dose should not exceed 1000 mg.

Acute Gout: The recommended starting dose is 750 mg of naproxen followed by 250 mg every 8 hours until the attack has subsided.

Osteoarthritis/Rheumatoid Arthritis/Ankylosing Spondylitis: The recommended dose of naproxen is 250 mg, 375 mg, or 500 mg taken twice daily (morning and evening). During long-term administration the dose of naproxen may be adjusted up or down depending on the clinical response of the patient. A lower daily dose may suffice for long-term administration. In patients who tolerate lower doses well, the dose may be increased to 1500 mg per day when a higher level of anti-inflammatory/analgesic activity is required. When treating patients with naproxen 1500 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefit to offset the potential increased risk. The morning and evening doses do not have to be equal in size and administration of the drug more frequently than twice daily does not generally make a difference in response (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

Juvenile Arthritis: The use of naproxen oral suspension allows for more flexible dose titration. In pediatric patients, doses of 5 mg/kg/day produced plasma levels of naproxen similar to those seen in adults taking 500 mg of naproxen (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

The recommended total daily dose is approximately 10 mg/kg given in 2 divided doses (i.e., 5 mg/kg given twice a day). (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of naproxen and other treatment options before deciding to use naproxen. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

Naproxen tablets are indicated:

  • For relief of mild to moderate pain

  • For relief of signs and symptoms of juvenile arthritis

  • For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis

  • For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis

  • For treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

  • For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of the following:

    1. Ankylosing spondylitis

    2. Acute painful shoulder (Acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis)

    3. Acute gouty arthritis

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Naproxen tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to naproxen.

Naproxen should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS - Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS - Preexisting Asthma).

Naproxen is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

WARNINGS

Cardiovascular Effects

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see GI WARNINGS).

Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including naproxen, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including naproxen, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Congestive Heart Failure and Edema

Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Naproxen should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention or heart failure.

Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation

NSAIDs, including naproxen, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.

NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior historyof peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Advanced Renal Disease

No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of naproxen in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with naproxen is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If naproxen therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to naproxen. Naproxen should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, and PRECAUTIONS - Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDs, including naproxen, can cause serous skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, naproxen should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

PRECAUTIONS

General

NAPROXEN SHOULD NOT BE USED CONCOMITANTLY WITH OTHER NAPROXEN CONTAINING PRODUCTS SINCE THEY ALL CIRCULATE IN THE PLASMA AS THE NAPROXEN ANION.

Naproxen cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of naproxen in reducing inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effects

Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including naproxen. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes, have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with naproxen. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), naproxen should be discontinued.

Hematological Effects

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including naproxen. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including naproxen, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving naproxen who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Fluid Retention and Edema

Peripheral edema has been observed in some patients receiving naproxen.

Preexisting Asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, naproxen should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

Information for Patients

Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.

  1. Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, may cause serious CV side effects, such as MI or stroke, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious CV events can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, slurring of speech, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Cardiovascular Effects).

  2. Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, can cause GI discomfort and, rarely, serious GI side effects, such as ulcers and bleeding, which may result in hospitalization and even death. Although serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative sign or symptoms including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis. Patients should be apprised of the importance of this follow-up (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects - Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation).

  3. Naproxen, like other NSAIDs, can cause serious skin side effects such as exfoliative dermatitis, SJS and TEN, which may result in hospitalizations and even death. Although serious skin reactions may occur without warning, patients should be alert for the signs and symptoms of skin rash and blisters, fever, or other signs of hypersensitivity such as itching, and should ask for medical advice when observing any indicative signs or symptoms. Patients should be advised to stop the drug immediately if they develop any type of rash and contact their physicians as soon as possible.

  4. Patients should promptly report signs or symptoms of unexplained weight gain or edema to their physicians.

  5. Patients should be informed of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, patients should be instructed to stop therapy and seek immediate medical therapy.

  6. Patients should be informed of the signs of an anaphylactoid reaction (e.g. difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). If these occur, patients should be instructed to seek immediate emergency help (see WARNINGS).

  7. In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, naproxen should be avoided because it will cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

Laboratory Tests

Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs or symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, naproxen should be discontinued.

Drug Interactions

ACE-inhibitors

Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

Aspirin

When naproxen is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free naproxen is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of naproxen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.

Furosemide

Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that naproxen can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Lithium

NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.

Methotrexate

NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Warfarin

The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

Other Information Concerning Drug Interactions

Naproxen is highly bound to plasma albumin; it thus has a theoretical potential for interaction with other albumin-bound drugs such as coumarin-type anticoagulants, sulphonylureas, hydantoins, other NSAIDs, and aspirin. Patients simultaneously receiving naproxen and a hydantoin, sulphonamide or sulphonylurea should be observed for adjustment of dose if required.

Naproxen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce the antihypertensive effect of propranolol and other beta-blockers.

Probenecid given concurrently increases naproxen anion plasma levels and extends its plasma half-life significantly.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

Naproxen may decrease platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time. This effect should be kept in mind when bleeding times are determined.

The administration of naproxen may result in increased urinary values for 17-ketogenic steroids because of an interaction between the drug and/or its metabolites with m-di-nitrobenzene used in this assay. Although 17-hydroxy-corticosteroid measurements (Porter-Silber test) do not appear to be artifactually altered, it is suggested that therapy with naproxen be temporarily discontinued 72 hours before adrenal function tests are performed if the Porter-Silber test is to be used.

Naproxen may interfere with some urinary assays of 5-hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA).

Carcinogenesis

A two-year study was performed in rats to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of naproxen at rat doses of 8, 16, and 24 mg/kg/day (50, 100, and 150 mg/m2). The maximum dose used was 0.28 times the systemic exposure to humans at the recommended dose. No evidence of tumorigenicity was found.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C.

Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.

Nonteratogenic Effects

Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of the ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.

Labor and Delivery

In rat studies with NSAIDS, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of naproxen on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

Nursing Mothers

The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentration equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma. Because of the possible adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates, use in nursing mothers should be avoided.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 years have not been established. Pediatric dosing recommendations for juvenile arthritis are based on well-controlled studies (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). There are no adequate effectiveness or dose-response data for other pediatric conditions, but the experience in juvenile arthritis and other use experience have established that single doses of 2.5 to 5 mg/kg (as naproxen suspension, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION), with total daily dose not exceeding 15 mg/kg/day, are well tolerated in pediatric patients over 2 years of age.

Geriatric Use

Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose.

Experience indicates that geriatric patients may be particularly sensitive to certain adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. While age does not appear to be an independent risk factor for the development of peptic ulceration and bleeding with naproxen administration, elderly or debilitated patients seem to tolerate peptic ulceration or bleeding less well when these events do occur. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in the geriatric population (see WARNINGS).

Naproxen is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Geriatric patients may be at a greater risk for the development of a form of renal toxicity precipitated by reduced prostaglandin formation during administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reactions reported in controlled clinical trials in 960 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis are listed below. In general, reactions in patients treated chronically were reported 2 to 10 times more frequently than they were in short-term studies in the 962 patients treated for mild to moderate pain or for dysmenorrhea. The most frequent complaints reported related to the gastrointestinal tract.

A clinical study found gastrointestinal reactions to be more frequent and more severe in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking daily doses of 1500 mg naproxen compared to those taking 750 mg naproxen (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

In controlled clinical trials with about 80 pediatric patients and in well monitored, open-label studies with about 400 pediatric patients with juvenile arthritis treated with naproxen, the incidence of rash and prolonged bleeding times were increased, the incidence of gastrointestinal and central nervous system reactions were about the same, and the incidence of other reactions were lower in pediatric patients than in adults.

In patients taking naproxen in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1 to 10% of patients are:

Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: heartburn*, abdominal pain*, nausea*, constipation*, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and stomatitis

Central Nervous System: headache*, dizziness*, drowsiness*, lightheadedness, vertigo

Dermatologic: pruritus (itching)*, skin eruptions*, ecchymoses*, sweating, purpura

Special Senses: tinnitus*, visual disturbances, hearing disturbances

Cardiovascular: edema*, palpitations

General: dyspnea*, thirst

*Incidence of reported reaction between 3% and 9%. Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked.

In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in approximately 1 to 10% of patients.

Gastrointestinal (GI) Experiences, including: flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, GI ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting

General: abnormal renal function, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, increased bleeding time, rashes

The following are additional adverse experiences reported in <1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials and through post-marketing reports. Those adverse reactions observed through post-marketing reports are italicized.

Body as a Whole: anaphylactoid reactions, angioneurotic edema, menstrual disorders, pyrexia (chills and fever)

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, vasculitis

Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation, hematemesis, jaundice, pancreatitis, vomiting, colitis, abnormal liver function tests, nonpeptic gastrointestinal ulceration, ulcerative stomatitis

Hemic and Lymphatic: eosinophilia, leucopenia, melena, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia

Nervous System: inability to concentrate, depression, dream abnormalities, insomnia, malaise, myalgia, muscle weakness, aseptic meningitis, cognitive dysfunction

Respiratory: eosinophilic pneumonitis

Dermatologic: alopecia, urticaria, skin rashes, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions, including rare cases resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (pseudoporphyria) or epidermolysis bullosa. If skin fragility, blistering or other symptoms suggestive of pseudoporphyria occur, treatment should be discontinued and the patient monitored.

Special Senses: hearing impairment

Urogenital: glomerular nephritis, hematuria, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, renal failure, renal papillary necrosis

In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in <1% of patients.

Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death

Cardiovascular: hypertension, tachycardia, syncope, arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction

Gastrointestinal: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, glossitis, hepatitis, eructation, liver failure

Hemic and Lymphatic: rectal bleeding, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes

Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, convulsions, coma, hallucinations

Respiratory: asthma, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis

Special Senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria

OVERDOSAGE

Significant naproxen overdosage may be characterized by lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness, epigastric pain, abdominal discomfort, heartburn, indigestion, nausea, transient alterations in liver function, hypoprothrombinemia, renal dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, apnea, disorientation or vomiting. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose. Because naproxen sodium may be rapidly absorbed, high and early blood levels should be anticipated. A few patients have experienced convulsions, but it is not clear whether or not these were drug-related. It is not known what dose of the drug would be life threatening. The oral LD50 of the drug is 543 mg/kg in rats, 1234 mg/kg in mice, 4110 mg/kg in hamsters, and greater than 1000 mg/kg in dogs.

Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Hemodialysis does not decrease the plasma concentration of naproxen because of the high degree of its protein binding. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose. Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of naproxen and other treatment options before deciding to use naproxen. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).

After observing the response to initial therapy with naproxen, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis, and Ankylosing Spondylitis

The recommended dose is 250 mg, 375 mg, or 500 mg twice daily. During long-term administration, the dose may be adjusted up or down depending on the clinical response of the patient. A lower daily dose may suffice for long-term administration. The morning and evening doses do not have to be equal in size and the administration of the drug more frequently than twice daily is not necessary.

In patients who tolerate lower doses well, the dose may be increased to naproxen 1500 mg per day for limited periods of up to 6 months when a higher level of anti-inflammatory/analgesic activity is required. When treating such patients with naproxen 1500 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefits to offset the potential increased risk (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, and INDIVIDUALIZATION OF DOSAGE).

Geriatric Patients

Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose.

Juvenile Arthritis

The recommended total daily dose of naproxen is approximately 10 mg/kg given in 2 divided doses (i.e., 5 mg/kg given twice a day). Naproxen tablets are not well suited to this dosage so use of naproxen oral suspension is recommended for this indication.

Management of Pain, Primary Dysmenorrhea and Acute Tendinitis and Bursitis

Because the sodium salt of naproxen is more rapidly absorbed, naproxen sodium is recommended for the management of acute painful conditions when prompt onset of pain relief is desired. Naproxen may also be used. The recommended starting dose of naproxen is 500 mg, followed by 500 mg every 12 hours or 250 mg every 6 to 8 hours as required. The initial total daily dose should not exceed 1250 mg of naproxen. Thereafter, the total daily dose should not exceed 1000 mg of naproxen.

Acute Gout

The recommended starting dose is 750 mg of naproxen, followed by 250 mg every 8 hours until the attack has subsided.

Different dose strengths and formulations (i.e. capsules, tablets, suspensions) of the drug are not necessarily bioequivalent. This difference should be taken into consideration when changing formulation (type, strength).

HOW SUPPLIED

Naproxen Tablets USP are supplied as follows:

250 mg tablets: White to off-white, round, convex tablet debossed WATSON in an arc around the top edge and 821 across the bottom on one side and plain on the other side, in bottles of 100.

375 mg tablets: Gray, capsule-shaped tablet debossed WATSON over 822 on one side and plain on the other side, in bottles of 100 and 500.

500 mg tablets: White to off-white, capsule-shaped tablet debossed WATSON over 791 on one side and plain on the other side, in bottles of 100 and 500.

Store at 20o-25oC (68o-77o F). [See USP controlled room temperature.] Dispense in a well-closed, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.

Manufactured for:
Watson Laboratories, Inc.
Corona, CA 92880 USA

Manufactured by:
Patheon Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Cincinnati, OH 45237 USA

Revised: August 2005

SUPPLEMENTAL PATIENT MATERIAL

Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:

  • with longer use of NSAID medicines

  • in people who have heart disease

NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).”

NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:

  • can happen without warning symptoms

  • may cause death

The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

  • taking medicines called “corticosteroids” and “anticoagulants”

  • longer use

  • smoking

  • drinking alcohol

  • older age

  • having poor health

NSAID medicines should only be used:

  • exactly as prescribed

  • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment

  • for the shortest time needed

___________________________________________________________________________

What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are use to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

  • different types of arthritis

  • menstrual cramps and other types of short-term pain

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

  • if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine

  • for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery

Tell your healthcare provider:

  • about all of your medical conditions.

  • about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist.

  • if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy.

  • if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor.

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

Serious side effects include: Other side effects include:
heart attack stomach pain
stroke constipation
high blood pressure diarrhea
heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) gas
kidney problems including kidney failure heartburn
bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine nausea
low red blood cells (anemia) vomiting
life-threatening skin reactions dizziness
life-threatening allergic reactions
liver problems including liver failure
asthma attacks in people who have asthma

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing

  • chest pain

  • weakness in one part or side of your body

  • slurred speech

  • swelling of the face or throat

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea

  • more tired or weaker than usual

  • itching

  • your skin or eyes look yellow

  • stomach pain

  • flu-like symptoms

  • vomit blood

  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar

  • unusual weight gain

  • skin rash or blisters with fever

  • swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.

  • Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

NSAID medicines that need a prescription
Generic Name Tradename
Celecoxib Celebrex
Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Arthrotec (combined with misoprostol)
Diflunisal Dolobid
Etodolac Lodine, Lodine XL
Fenoprofen Nalfon, Nalfon 200
Flurbiprofen Ansaid
Ibuprofen Motrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone)
Indomethacin Indocin, Indocin SR, Indo-Lemmon, Indomethagan
Ketoprofen Oruvail
Ketorolac Toradol
Mefenamic Acid Ponstel
Meloxicam Mobic
Nabumetone Relafen
Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC-Naproxyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole)
Oxaprozin Daypro
Piroxicam Feldene
Sulindac Clinoril
Tolmetin Tolectin, Tolectin DS, Tolectin 600

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.


NAPROXEN 
naproxen tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:0591-0821
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
Naproxen (Naproxen) Active 250 MILLIGRAM  In 1 TABLET
Croscarmellose sodium Inactive  
Magnesium stearate Inactive  
Povidone Inactive  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE (White to off-white) Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 10mm
Flavor Imprint Code WATSON;821
Contains     
Coating false Symbol false
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0591-0821-01 100 TABLET In 1 BOTTLE None

NAPROXEN 
naproxen tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:0591-0822
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
Naproxen (Naproxen) Active 375 MILLIGRAM  In 1 TABLET
Croscarmellose sodium Inactive  
Magnesium stearate Inactive  
Povidone Inactive  
Synthetic black iron oxide Inactive  
Synthetic red iron oxide Inactive  
Synthetic yellow iron oxide Inactive  
Product Characteristics
Color GRAY Score no score
Shape OVAL (CAPSULE-SHAPED) Size 14mm
Flavor Imprint Code WATSON;822
Contains     
Coating false Symbol false
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0591-0822-01 100 TABLET In 1 BOTTLE None
2 0591-0822-05 500 TABLET In 1 BOTTLE None

NAPROXEN 
naproxen tablet
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:0591-0791
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
INGREDIENTS
Name (Active Moiety) Type Strength
Naproxen (Naproxen) Active 500 MILLIGRAM  In 1 TABLET
Croscarmellose sodium Inactive  
Magnesium stearate Inactive  
Povidone Inactive  
Product Characteristics
Color WHITE (White to off-white) Score no score
Shape OVAL (CAPSULE-SHAPED) Size 16mm
Flavor Imprint Code WATSON;791
Contains     
Coating false Symbol false
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 0591-0791-01 100 TABLET In 1 BOTTLE None
2 0591-0791-05 500 TABLET In 1 BOTTLE None

Revised: 02/2007 Watson Labs



Source: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine


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