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----------Naproxen 500 mg
Naproxen is a member of the arylacetic acid group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
The chemical name for naproxen is (S)-6-methoxy-α-methyl-2-naphthaleneacetic acid. Naproxen has the following structure:Naproxen is an odorless, white to off-white crystalline substance. It is lipid-soluble, practically insoluble in water at low pH and freely soluble in water at high pH. The octanol/water partition coefficient of naproxen at pH 7.4 is 1.6 to 1.8.
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 250 mg, 375 mg or 500 mg of naproxen. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, povidone, and sodium starch glycolate.
Pharmacodynamics: Naproxen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. The sodium salt of naproxen has been developed as a more rapidly absorbed formulation of naproxen for use as an analgesic. The mechanism of action of the naproxen anion, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.
Pharmacokinetics: Naproxen itself is rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with an in vivo bioavailability of 95%. The different dosage forms of naproxen are bioequivalent in terms of extent of absorption (AUG) and peak concentration (Cmax); however, the products do differ in their pattern of absorption. These differences between naproxen products are related to both the chemical form of naproxen used and its formulation. Even with the observed differences in pattern of absorption, the elimination half-life of naproxen is unchanged across products ranging from 12 to 17 hours. Steady-state levels of naproxen are reached in 4 to 5 days, and the degree of naproxen accumulation is consistent with this half-life. This suggests that the differences in pattern of release play only a negligible role in the attainment of steady-state plasma levels.
Absorption: After administration of naproxen tablets, peak plasma levels are attained in 2 to 4 hours.Distribution:
Naproxen has a volume of distribution of 0.16 L/kg. At therapeutic levels naproxen is greater than 99% albumin-bound. At doses of naproxen greater than 500 mg/day there is less than proportional increase in plasma levels due to an increase in clearance caused by saturation of plasma protein binding at higher doses (average trough Css 36.5, 49.2 and 56.4 mg/L with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg daily doses of naproxen). The naproxen anion has been found in the milk of lactating women at a concentrations equivalent to approximately 1% of maximum naproxen concentration in plasma (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers).Metabolism:
Naproxen is extensively metabolized to 6-0-desmethyl naproxen, and both parent and metabolites do not induce metabolizing enzymes.Excretion:
The clearance of naproxen is 0.13 mL/min/kg. Approximately 95% of the naproxen from any dose is excreted in the urine, primarily as naproxen (less than 1%), 6-0-desmethyl naproxen (less than 1%) or their conjugates (66% to 92%). The plasma half-life of the naproxen anion in humans ranges from 12 to 17 hours. The corresponding half-lives of both naproxen's metabolites and conjugates are shorter than 12 hours, and their rates of excretion have been found to coincide closely with the rate of naproxen disappearance from the plasma. In patients with renal failure metabolites may accumulate (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).Special Populations:
Pediatric Patients: In pediatric patients aged 5 to 16 years with arthritis, plasma naproxen levels following a 5 mg/kg single dose of naproxen suspension (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) were found to be similar to those found in normal adults following a 500 mg dose. The terminal half-life appears to be similar in pediatric and adult patients. Pharmacokinetic studies of naproxen were not performed in pediatric patients younger than 5 years of age. Pharmacokinetic parameters appear to be similar following administration of naproxen suspension or tablets in pediatric patients.
Geriatric Patients: Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly, although the unbound fraction is less than 1% of the total naproxen concentration. Unbound trough naproxen concentrations in elderly subjects have been reported to range from 0.12% to 0.19% of total naproxen concentration, compared with 0.05% to 0.075% in younger subjects. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, although it is possible that the increase in free naproxen concentration could be associated with an increase in the rate of adverse events per a given dosage in some elderly patients.
Race: Pharmacokinetic differences due to race have not been studied.
Hepatic Insufficiency: Naproxen pharmacokinetics has not been determined in subjects with hepatic insufficiency.
Renal Insufficiency: Naproxen pharmacokinetics has not been determined in subjects with renal insufficiency. Given that naproxen, its metabolites and conjugates are primarily excreted by the kidney, the potential exists for naproxen metabolites to accumulate in the presence of renal insufficiency. Elimination of naproxen is decreased in patients with severe renal impairment. Naproxen-containing products are not recommended for use in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine less than 30 ml/min) (see WARNINGS: Renal Effects).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of naproxen and other treatment options before deciding to use naproxen tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
Naproxen is indicated:* For reduction of fever * For relief of mild to moderate pain * For relief of signs and symptoms of juvenile arthritis. * For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis * For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis. * For treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. * For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of the following:
Naproxen tablets are also indicated
Naproxen is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to prescription as well as to over-the-counter products containing naproxen.
Naproxen should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS - Anaphylactoid Reactions, and PRECAUTIONS - Preexisting Asthma).
Naproxen is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious Gl events (see Gl WARNINGS).
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10-14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).Hypertension
NSAIDs, including naproxen, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including naproxen, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients taking NSAIDs. Naproxen should be used with caution in patients with fluid retention, hypertension, or heart failure.Gastrointestinal Effects- Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding, and Perforation
NSAIDs, including naproxen, can cause serious gastrointestinal (Gl) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper Gl adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper Gl ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious Gl event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a Gl bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for Gl bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal Gl events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse Gl event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of Gl ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious Gl adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious Gl adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.Renal Effects
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state (see WARNINGS: Advanced Renal Disease).Advanced Renal Disease
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of naproxen in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with naproxen is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If naproxen therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.Anaphylactoid Reactions
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to naproxen. Naproxen should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS - Preexisting Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.Skin Reactions
NSAIDs including naproxen, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.Pregnancy
In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, naproxen should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Naproxen cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids and the patient should be observed closely for any evidence of adverse effects, including adrenal insufficiency and exacerbation of symptoms of arthritis. Patients with initial hemoglobin values of 10g or less who are to receive long-term therapy should have hemoglobin values determined periodically.
The pharmacological activity of naproxen in reducing [fever and] inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, noninflammatory painful conditions.
Because of adverse eye findings in animal studies with drugs of this class, it is recommended that ophthalmic studies be carried out if any change or disturbance in vision occurs.Hepatic Effects
Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including naproxen. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with naproxen. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), naproxen should be discontinued. Chronic alcoholic liver disease and probably other diseases with decreased or abnormal plasma proteins (albumin) reduced the total plasma concentration of naproxen, but the plasma concentrations of unbound naproxen is increased. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in these patients. It is prudent to use the lowest effective dose.Hematological Effects
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including naproxen. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross Gl blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including naproxen, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving naproxen who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.Preexisting Asthma
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, naproxen should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
Adverse reactions reported in controlled clinical trials in 960 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis are listed below. In general, reactions in patients treated chronically were reported 2 to 10 times more frequently than they were in short-term studies in the 962 patients treated for mild to moderate pain or for dysmenorrhea. The most frequent complaints reported related to the gastrointestinal tract.
A clinical study found gastrointestinal reactions to be more frequent and more severe in rheumatoid arthritis patients taking daily doses of 1500 mg naproxen compared to those taking 750 mg naproxen (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). In controlled clinical trials with about 80 pediatric patients and in well-monitored, open-label studies with about 400 pediatric patients with juvenile arthritis treated with naproxen, the incidence of rash and prolonged bleeding times were increased, the incidence of gastrointestinal and central nervous system reactions were about the same, and the incidence of other reactions were lower in pediatric patients than in adults.
In patients taking naproxen in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1 to 10% of patients are:
Gastrointestinal (Gl) Experiences, including: heartburn*, abdominal pain*, nausea*, constipation*, diarrhea, dyspepsia, stomatitis
Central Nervous System: headache*, dizziness*, drowsiness*, lightheadedness, vertigo
Dermatologic: pruritus (itching), skin eruptions, ecchymoses, sweating, purpura
Special Senses: tinnitus, visual disturbances, hearing disturbances
Cardiovascular: edema, palpitations
General: dyspnea*, thirst
*Incidence of reported reaction between 3% and 9%. Those reactions occurring in less than 3% of the patients are unmarked. In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in approximately 1 to 10% of patients.
Gastrointestinal (Gl) Experiences, including: flatulence, gross bleeding/perforation, Gl ulcers (gastric/duodenal), vomiting
General: abnormal renal function, anemia, elevated liver enzymes, increased bleeding time, rashes
The following are additional adverse experiences reported in less than 1% of patients taking naproxen during clinical trials and through post-marketing reports. Those adverse reactions observed through post-marketing reports are italicized.
Body as a Whole:anaphylactoid reactions, angioneurotic edema, menstrual disorders, pyrexia (chills and fever)
Cardiovascular:congestive heart failure, vasculitis, hypertension, pulmonary edema
Gastrointestinal: gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation, hematemesis, jaundice, pancreatitis, vomiting, colitis, abnormal liver function tests, nonpeptic gastrointestinal ulceration, ulcerative stomatitis
Hepatobiliary: jaundice, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis (some cases have been fatal)
Hemic and Lymphatic:eosinophilia, leucopenia, melena, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia
Metabolic and Nutritional:hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
Nervous System: inability to concentrate, depression, dream abnormalities, insomnia, malaise, myalgia, muscle weakness, aseptic meningitis, cognitive dysfunction, convulsions
Respiratory:eosinophilic pneumonitis, asthma
Dermatologic:alopecia, urticaria, skin rashes, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum fixed drug eruption, lichen planus pustular reaction, systemic lupus erythematoses, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, photosensitive dermatitis, photosensitivity reactions, including rare cases resembling porphyria cutanea tarda (psuedoporphyria) or epidermolysis bullosa. If skin fragility, blistering or other symptoms suggestive of pseudoporphyria occur, treatment should be discontinued and the patient monitored.
Special Senses:hearing impairment, corneal opacity, papillitis, retrobulbar optic neuritis, papilledema
Urogenital:glomerular nephritis, hematuria, hyperkalemia, interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, renal disease, renal failure, renal papillary necrosis, raised serum creatinine
In patients taking NSAIDs, the following adverse experiences have also been reported in less than 1% of patients.
Body as a Whole: fever, infection, sepsis, anaphylactic reactions, appetite changes, death
Cardiovascular: hypertension, tachycardia, syncope, arrhythmia, hypotension, myocardial infarction
Gastrointestinal: dry mouth, esophagitis, gastric/peptic ulcers, gastritis, glossitis, hepatitis, eructation, liver failure
Hepatobiliary: hepatitis, liver failure
Hemic and Lymphatic: rectal bleeding, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia
Metabolic and Nutritional: weight changes
Nervous System: anxiety, asthenia, confusion, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, tremors, convulsions, coma, hallucinations
Respiratory: asthma, respiratory depression, pneumonia
Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis
Special Senses: blurred vision, conjunctivitis
Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria
Significant naproxen overdosage may be characterized by lethargy, dizziness, drowsiness, epigastric pain, abdominal discomfort, heartburn, indigestion, nausea, transient alterations in liver function, hypoprothrombinemia, renal dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, apnea, disorientation or vomiting. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose. Because naproxen sodium may be rapidly absorbed, high and early blood levels should be anticipated. A few patients have experienced convulsions, but it is not clear whether or not these were drug-related. It is not known what dose of the drug would be life-threatening. The oral LD50 of the drug is 543 mg/kg in rats, 1234 mg/kg in mice, 4110 mg/kg in hamsters, and greater than 1000 mg/kg in dogs.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAID overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Hemodialysis does not decrease the plasma concentration of naproxen because of the high degree of its protein binding. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 g in adults, 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose. Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of naproxen and other treatment options before deciding to use naproxen. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS).
After observing the response to initial therapy with naproxen, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs. Naproxen Tablets250 mg twice daily or 375 mg twice daily or 500 mg twice daily
Although naproxen circulates in the plasma they have pharmacokinetic differences that may affect onset of action. Onset of pain relief can begin within 30 minutes in patients taking naproxen sodium and within 1 hour in patients taking naproxen (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
The recommended strategy for initiating therapy is to choose a formulation and a starting dose likely to be effective for the patient and then adjust the dosage based on observation of benefit and/or adverse events. A lower dose should be considered in patients with renal or hepatic impairment or in elderly patients (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
Geriatric Patients: Studies indicate that although total plasma concentration of naproxen is unchanged, the unbound plasma fraction of naproxen is increased in the elderly. Caution is advised when high doses are required and some adjustment of dosage may be required in elderly patients. As with other drugs used in the elderly, it is prudent to use the lowest effective dose.
In patients who tolerate lower doses well, the dose may be increased to naproxen 1500 mg/day for limited periods of up to 6 months when a higher level of anti-inflammatory/analgesic activity is required. When treating such patients with naproxen 1500 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefits to offset the potential increased risk. The morning and evening doses do not have to be equal in size and administration of the drug more frequently than twice the daily doses do not generally make a difference in response (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY)
Acute Gout: The recommended starting dose is 750 mg of naproxen followed by 250 mg every 8 hours until the attack has
Naproxen Tablets USP, 250 mg are white, round, unscored tablet; embossed "West-ward 346" and are available in:Bottles of 30 tablets. Bottles of 100 tablets. Bottles of 500 tablets.
Naproxen Tablets USP, 375 mg are white, oblong, unscored tablet; embossed "West-ward 347" and are available in:Bottles of 30 tablets. Bottles of 100 tablets. Bottles of 500 tablets.
Naproxen Tablets USP, 500 mg are white, oblong, unscored tablet; embossed "West-ward 348" and are available in:Bottles of 30 tablets. Bottles of 100 tablets. Bottles of 500 tablets.
Store at controlled room temperature, 20-25°C (68-77°F) with excursions permitted between 15-30°C (59-86°). (See USP). Dispense in light-resistant containers.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with an NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
Medication Guide for
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:
NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)."
NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:
The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:
NSAID medicines should only be used:
What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:
Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?
Do not take an NSAID medicine:
Tell your healthcare provider:
Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.
Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
Revised: 09/2010 Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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