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nabumetone tablet, film coated
----------Nabumetone 500 mg
Nabumetone is a naphthylalkanone designated chemically as 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthalenyl)-2-butanone. It has the following structure:
Nabumetone is a white to off-white crystalline substance with a molecular weight of 228.3. It is nonacidic and practically insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and most organic solvents. It has an n-octanol:phosphate buffer partition coefficient of 2400 at pH 7.4.
Tablets for Oral Administration
Each oval-shaped, film-coated tablet contains 500 mg or 750 mg of nabumetone. Inactive ingredients consist of colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol 400, polysorbate 80 and sodium lauryl sulfate.
Nabumetone is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties in pharmacologic studies. As with other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, its mode of action is not known. However, the ability to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effectPharmacokinetics
After oral administration, approximately 80% of a radiolabeled dose of nabumetone is found in the urine, indicating that nabumetone is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Nabumetone itself is not detected in the plasma because, after absorption, it undergoes rapid biotransformation to the principal active metabolite, 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA). Approximately 35% of a 1000 mg oral dose of nabumetone is converted to 6MNA and 50% is converted into unidentified metabolites which are subsequently excreted in the urine. Following oral administration of nabumetone tablets, 6MNA exhibits pharmacokinetic characteristics that generally follow a one-compartment model with first order input and first order elimination.
6MNA is more than 99% bound to plasma proteins. The free fraction is dependent on total concentration of 6MNA and is proportional to dose over the range of 1000 mg to 2000 mg. It is 0.2% to 0.3% at concentrations typically achieved following administration of nabumetone 1000 mg and is approximately 0.6% to 0.8% of the total concentrations at steady state following daily administration of 2000 mg.
Steady-state plasma concentrations of 6MNA are slightly lower than predicted from single-dose data. This may result from the higher fraction of unbound 6MNA which undergoes greater hepatic clearance.
Coadministration of food increases the rate of absorption and subsequent appearance of 6MNA in the plasma but does not affect the extent of conversion of nabumetone into 6MNA. Peak plasma concentrations of 6MNA are increased by approximately one third.
Coadministration with an aluminum-containing antacid had no significant effect on the
bioavailability of 6MNA
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of nabumetone and other treatment options before deciding to use nabumetone. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS ).
Nabumetone is indicated:
* For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
* For relief of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis.
Nabumetone is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to nabumetone or its excipients.
Nabumetone should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS, Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS, General, Preexisting Asthma).
Nabumetone is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS ).
Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with a NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.
There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and a NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see WARNINGS, Gastrointestinal Effects, Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation).
Two large, controlled, clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS ).Hypertension
NSAIDs, including nabumetone, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.Congestive Heart Failure and Edema
Fluid retention and edema have been observed in some patients
taking NSAIDs. Nabumetone should be used with caution in patients with fluid
retention or heart failure.
Gastrointestinal EffectsRisk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation
NSAIDs, including nabumetone, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3 to 6 months, and in about 2 to 4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk.
In controlled clinical trials involving 1,677 patients treated with nabumetone (1,140 followed for 1 year and 927 for 2 years), the cumulative incidence of peptic ulcers was 0.3% (95% CI; 0%, 0.6%) at 3 to 6 months, 0.5% (95% CI; 0.1%, 0.9%) at 1 year and 0.8% (95% CI; 0.3%, 1.3%) at 2 years. In patients with active peptic ulcer, physicians must weigh the benefits of therapy with nabumetone against possible hazards, institute an appropriate ulcer treatment regimen and monitor the patients’ progress carefully.
NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or gastrointestinal bleeding who use NSAIDs have a greater than 10-fold increased risk for developing a GI bleed compared to patients with neither of these risk factors. Other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age, and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.
To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event in patients treated with a NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of the NSAID until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.
Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal
papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in
patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the
maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID
results in a dose-dependent decrease in prostaglandin synthesis and,
secondarily, in a reduction of renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt
renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with
impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking
diuretics, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is typically
followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.
No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of nabumetone in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with nabumetone is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If nabumetone therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient's renal function is advisable.
Because nabumetone undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism, no adjustment of
the dosage of nabumetone is generally necessary in patients with mild renal
insufficiency; however, as with all NSAIDs, patients with impaired renal
function should be monitored more closely than patients with normal renal
function (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics, Renal
Insufficiency). In subjects with moderate renal impairment
(creatinine clearance 30 to 49 mL/min) there is a 50% increase in unbound plasma
6MNA and dose adjustment may be warranted. The oxidized and conjugated
metabolites of 6MNA are eliminated primarily by the kidneys.
As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in
patients without known prior exposure to nabumetone. Nabumetone should not be
given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs
in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or
who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other
NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS
and PRECAUTIONS, General, Preexisting
Asthma). Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid
NSAIDs, including nabumetone, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.Pregnancy
In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, nabumetone should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.
Nabumetone cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.
The pharmacological activity of nabumetone in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.Hepatic Effects
Borderline elevations of one or more liver function tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including nabumetone. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.
A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with nabumetone. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), nabumetone should be discontinued.Hematological Effects
Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including nabumetone. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including nabumetone, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.
NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving nabumetone who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Special Studies, Other).Preexisting Asthma
Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with the severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, nabumetone should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.
Photosensitivity: Based on ultraviolet (U.V.) light photosensitivity testing, nabumetone may be associated with more reactions to sun exposure than might be expected based on skin tanning types.
Adverse reaction information was derived from blinded-controlled and open-labeled clinical trials and from worldwide marketing experience. In the description below, rates of the more common events (greater than 1%) and many of the less common events (less than 1%) represent results of U.S. clinical studies.
Of the 1,677 patients who received nabumetone during U.S. clinical trials, 1,524 were treated for at least 1 month, 1,327 for at least 3 months, 929 for at least a year and 750 for at least 2 years. Over 300 patients have been treated for 5 years or longer.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions were related to the gastrointestinal tract and included diarrhea, dyspepsia and abdominal pain.
Symptoms following acute NSAIDs overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs, and may occur following an overdose.
Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAIDs overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults; 1 to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.
There have been overdoses of up to 25 grams of nabumetone reported with no long-term sequelae following standard emergency treatment (i.e., activated charcoal, gastric lavage, IV H2-blockers, etc.).
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of nabumetone and other treatment options before deciding to use nabumetone. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals (see WARNINGS ).
After observing the response to initial therapy with nabumetone, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient's needs.Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
The recommended starting dose is 1000 mg taken as a single dose with or without food. Some patients may obtain more symptomatic relief from 1500 mg to 2000 mg per day. Nabumetone can be given in either a single or twice-daily dose. Dosages greater than 2000 mg per day have not been studied. The lowest effective dose should be used for chronic treatment (see WARNINGS, Renal Effects ). Patients weighing under 50 kg may be less likely to require dosages beyond 1000 mg; therefore, after observing the response to initial therapy, the dose should be adjusted to meet individual patients’ requirements.
Nabumetone Tablets USP:
500 mg tablets: Oval-shaped, white film coated tablets, de-bossed “E 145" on one side, plain on the other side.
750 mg tablets: Oval-shaped, white film coated tablets, de-bossed “E 146" on one side, plain on the other side.
For both 500 mg and 750 mg strengths
Bottles of 100 tablets
Bottles of 500 tablets
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense contents in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP with a child-resistant closure, as required.
Information for Patients
Patients should be informed of the following information before initiating therapy with a NSAID and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to read the NSAID Medication Guide that accompanies each prescription dispensed.
Because serious GI tract ulcerations and bleeding can occur without warning symptoms, physicians should monitor for signs and symptoms of GI bleeding. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, should have their CBC and a chemistry profile checked periodically. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver or renal disease develop, systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.) or if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, nabumetone should be discontinued.Drug InteractionsACE-inhibitors
Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.Aspirin
When nabumetone is administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free nabumetone is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of nabumetone and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential of increased adverse effects.Diuretics
Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, have shown that nabumetone can reduce the natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure (see PRECAUTIONS, Renal Effects ), as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.Lithium
NSAIDs have produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance was decreased by approximately 20%. These effects have been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by the NSAID. Thus, when NSAIDs and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity.Methotrexate
NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.Warfarin
The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.
In vitro studies have shown that, because of its affinity for protein, 6MNA may displace other protein-bound drugs from their binding site. Caution should be exercised when administering nabumetone with warfarin since interactions have been seen with other NSAIDs. Concomitant administration of an aluminum-containing antacid had no significant effect on the bioavailability of 6MNA. When administered with food or milk, there is more rapid absorption; however, the total amount of 6MNA in the plasma is unchanged (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Pharmacokinetics).Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis
In two-year studies conducted in mice and rats, nabumetone had no statistically significant tumorigenic effect. Nabumetone did not show mutagenic potential in the Ames test and mouse micronucleus test in vivo. However, nabumetone- and 6MNA-treated lymphocytes in culture showed chromosomal aberrations at 80 mcg/mL and higher concentrations (equal to the average human exposure to nabumetone at the maximum recommended dose).Impairment of Fertility
Nabumetone did not impair fertility of male or female rats treated orally at doses of 320 mg/kg/day (1888 mg/m2) before mating.PregnancyTeratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category C
Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Nabumetone should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.Nonteratogenic Effects
Because of the known effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during pregnancy (particularly late pregnancy) should be avoided.Labor and Delivery
In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of nabumetone on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk, however 6MNA is excreted in the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from nabumetone, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.Geriatric Use
As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older). Of the 1,677 patients in U.S. clinical studies who were treated with nabumetone, 411 patients (24%) were 65 years of age or older; 22 patients (1%) were 75 years of age or older. No overall differences in efficacy or safety were observed between these older patients and younger ones. Similar results were observed in a 1-year, non-U.S. post-marketing surveillance study of 10,800 nabumetone patients, of whom 4,577 patients (42%) were 65 years of age or older.
•NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk. (See WARNINGS .)
•Nabumetone is contraindicated for the treatment of peri-operative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. (See WARNINGS .)
•NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal (GI) events. (See WARNINGS .)
----------NABUMETONE TABLETS USP, 500 mg and 750 mgMedication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that
can lead to death. This chance increases:
NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)."
NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment.
Ulcers and bleeding:
The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:
NSAID medicines should only be used:
What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:
Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?
Do not take a NSAID medicine:
Tell your healthcare provider:
What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?
Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:
These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.
Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
NSAID medicines that need a prescription
Princeton, NJ 08540
MG #17075Revised: 04/2009Sandoz Inc.
Revised: 08/2010 Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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