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Name:Ketorolac Tromethamine
Manufacturer:Lake Erie Medical Dba Quality Care Products Llc
Category:Prescription Marketed Drugs


Ketorolac Tromethamine 10 MG

KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE  - ketorolac tromethamine tablet, film coated 
Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC

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Ketorolac Tromethamine 10 MG

DESCRIPTIONKetorolac tromethamine is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The chemical name for ketorolac tromethamine is (±)-5-Benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol, and the structural formula is

Ketorolac tromethamine is a racemic mixture of [-]S and [+]R ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. Ketorolac tromethamine has a pKa of 3.5 and an n-octanol/water partition coefficient of 0.26. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376.41.

Each tablet for oral administration contains 10 mg ketorolac tromethamine, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, sodium lauryl sulfate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.



CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Pharmacodynamics

Ketorolac tromethamine is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that exhibits analgesic activity in animal models. The mechanism of action of ketorolac, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. The biological activity of ketorolac tromethamine is associated with the S-form. Ketorolac tromethamine possesses no sedative or anxiolytic properties.

The peak analgesic effect of ketorolac tromethamine occurs within 2 to 3 hours and is not statistically significantly different over the recommended dosage range of ketorolac tromethamine. The greatest difference between large and small doses of ketorolac tromethamine is in the duration of analgesia.


Pharmacokinetics

Ketorolac tromethamine is a racemic mixture of [-]S- and [+]R-enantiomeric forms, with the S-form having analgesic activity.

Comparison of IV, IM and Oral Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine, following IV, IM and oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine tablets, are compared in Table 1. In adults, the extent of bioavailability following administration of the oral and IM forms of ketorolac tromethamine was equal to that following an IV bolus.

Linear Kinetics

In adults, following administration of single oral, IM or IV doses of ketorolac tromethamine in the recommended dosage ranges, the clearance of the racemate does not change. This implies that the pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine in adults, following single or multiple IM, IV or recommended oral doses of ketorolac tromethamine, are linear. At the higher recommended doses, there is a proportional increase in the concentrations of free and bound racemate.

Absorption

Ketorolac tromethamine is 100% absorbed after oral administration (see Table 1). Oral administration of ketorolac tromethamine after a high-fat meal resulted in decreased peak and delayed time-to-peak concentrations of ketorolac tromethamine by about one hour. Antacids did not affect the extent of absorption.

Distribution

The mean apparent volume (Vβ) of ketorolac tromethamine following complete distribution was approximately 13 liters. This parameter was determined from single-dose data. The ketorolac tromethamine racemate has been shown to be highly protein bound (99%). Nevertheless, plasma concentrations as high as 10 mcg/mL will only occupy approximately 5% of the albumin binding sites. Thus, the unbound fraction for each enantiomer will be constant over the therapeutic range. A decrease in serum albumin, however, will result in increased free drug concentrations.

Ketorolac tromethamine is excreted in human milk (see PRECAUTIONS: Nursing Mothers).

Metabolism

Ketorolac tromethamine is largely metabolized in the liver. The metabolic products are hydroxylated and conjugated forms of the parent drug. The products of metabolism, and some unchanged drug, are excreted in the urine.

Excretion

The principal route of elimination of ketorolac and its metabolites is renal. About 92% of a given dose is found in the urine, approximately 40% as metabolites and 60% as unchanged ketorolac. Approximately 6% of a dose is excreted in the feces. A single-dose study with 10 mg ketorolac tromethamine (n = 9) demonstrated that the S-enantiomer is cleared approximately 2 times faster than the R-enantiomer and that the clearance was independent of the route of administration. This means that the ratio of S/R plasma concentrations decreases with time after each dose. There is little or no inversion of the R- to S- form in humans. The clearance of the racemate in normal subjects, elderly individuals and in hepatically and renally impaired patients is outlined in Table 2 (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Kinetics in Special Populations).

The half-life of the ketorolac tromethamine S-enantiomer was approximately 2.5 hours (SD ± 0.4) compared with 5 hours (SD ± 1.7) for the R-enantiomer. In other studies, the half-life for the racemate has been reported to lie within the range of 5 to 6 hours.

Accumulation

Ketorolac tromethamine administered as an IV bolus every 6 hours for 5 days to healthy subjects (n = 13), showed no significant difference in Cmax on Day 1 and Day 5. Trough levels averaged 0.29 mcg/mL (SD ± 0.13) on Day 1 and 0.55 mcg/mL (SD ± 0.23) on Day 6. Steady-state was approached after the fourth dose.

Accumulation of ketorolac tromethamine has not been studied in special populations (geriatric, pediatric, renal failure or hepatic disease patients).


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ketorolac tromethamine and other treatment options before deciding to use ketorolac tromethamine. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.

Acute Pain in Adult Patients

Ketorolac tromethamine tablets are indicated for the short-term (≤ 5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. Therapy should always be initiated with ketorolac tromethamine-IV or IM and ketorolac tromethamine tablets are to be used only as continuation treatment, if necessary.

The total combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine-IV/IM and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days of use because of the potential of increasing the frequency and severity of adverse reactions associated with the recommended doses (see WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and ADVERSE REACTIONS). Patients should be switched to alternative analgesics as soon as possible, but ketorolac tromethamine tablet therapy is not to exceed 5 days.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

(see also Boxed WARNING)

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine.

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.

Ketorolac tromethamine should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticaria or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDS. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDS have been reported in such patients (see WARNINGS: Anaphylactoid Reactions and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma).

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery.

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with advanced renal impairment or in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS for correction of volume depletion).

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in labor and delivery because, through its prostaglandin synthesis inhibitory effect, it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions, thus increasing the risk of uterine hemorrhage.

The use of ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in nursing mothers because of the potential adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates.

Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, contraindicated in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete homeostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risks of inducing serious NSAID-related adverse events.

The concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and probenecid is contraindicated.

The concomitant use of ketorolac tromethamine and pentoxifylline is contraindicated.

WARNINGS

(see also Boxed WARNING)

The total combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine-IV/IM and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days in adults. Ketorolac tromethamine tablets are not indicated for use in pediatric patients.

The most serious risks associated with ketorolac tromethamine are:

Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with previously documented peptic ulcers and/or GI bleeding. Ketorolac tromethamine can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration and perforation, of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with ketorolac tromethamine.

Only one in five patients who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy is symptomatic. Minor upper gastrointestinal problems, such as dyspepsia, are common and may also occur at any time during NSAID therapy. The incidence and severity of gastrointestinal complications increases with increasing dose of, and duration of treatment with, ketorolac tromethamine. Do not use ketorolac tromethamine for more than 5 days. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. In addition to past history of ulcer disease, other factors that increase the risk for GI bleeding in patients treated with NSAIDs include concomitant use of oral corticosteroids, or anticoagulants, longer duration of NSAID therapy, smoking, use of alcohol, older age and poor general health status. Most spontaneous reports of fatal GI events are in elderly or debilitated patients and therefore, special care should be taken in treating this population.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse GI event, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest possible duration. Patients and physicians should remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy and promptly initiate additional evaluation and treatment if a serious GI adverse event is suspected. This should include discontinuation of ketorolac tromethamine until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out. For high risk patients, alternate therapies that do not involve NSAIDs should be considered.

NSAIDs should be given with care to patients with a history of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease) as their condition may be exacerbated.

Hemorrhage

Because prostaglandins play an important role in hemostasis and NSAIDs affect platelet aggregation as well, use of ketorolac tromethamine in patients who have coagulation disorders should be undertaken very cautiously, and those patients should be carefully monitored. Patients on therapeutic doses of anticoagulants (e.g., heparin or dicumarol derivatives) have an increased risk of bleeding complications if given ketorolac tromethamine concurrently; therefore, physicians should administer such concomitant therapy only extremely cautiously. The concurrent use of ketorolac tromethamine and therapy that affects hemostasis, including prophylactic low-dose heparin (2500 to 5000 units q12h), warfarin and dextrans have not been studied extensively, but may also be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Until data from such studies are available, physicians should carefully weigh the benefits against the risks and use such concomitant therapy in these patients only extremely cautiously. Patients receiving therapy that affects hemostasis should be monitored closely.

In post-marketing experience, postoperative hematomas and other signs of wound bleeding have been reported in association with the perioperative use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine. Therefore, perioperative use of ketorolac tromethamine should be avoided and postoperative use be undertaken with caution when hemostasis is critical (see PRECAUTIONS).

Renal Effects

Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of a NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Ketorolac tromethamine and its metabolites are eliminated primarily by the kidneys, which, in patients with reduced creatinine clearance, will result in diminished clearance of the drug (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, ketorolac tromethamine should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) and such patients should be followed closely. With the use of ketorolac tromethamine, there have been reports of acute renal failure, interstitial nephritis and nephrotic syndrome.

Impaired Renal Function

Ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in patients with serum creatinine concentrations indicating advanced renal impairment (see CONTRAINDICATIONS). Ketorolac tromethamine should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or a history of kidney disease because it is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis. Because patients with underlying renal insufficiency are at increased risk of developing acute renal decompensation or failure, the risks and benefits should be assessed prior to giving ketorolac tromethamine to these patients.

Anaphylactoid Reactions

As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without a known previous exposure or hypersensitivity to ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and PRECAUTIONS: Preexisting Asthma). Anaphylactoid reactions, like anaphylaxis, may have a fatal outcome. Emergency help should be sought in cases where an anaphylactoid reaction occurs.

Cardiovascular EffectsCardiovascular Thrombotic Events

Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to 3 years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. All NSAIDs, both COX-2 selective and nonselective, may have a similar risk. Patients with known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease may be at greater risk. To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in patients treated with an NSAID, the lowest effective dose should be used for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the signs and/or symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

There is no consistent evidence that concurrent use of aspirin mitigates the increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events associated with NSAID use. The concurrent use of aspirin and an NSAID does increase the risk of serious GI events (see Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation). Two large, controlled clinical trials of a COX-2 selective NSAID for the treatment of pain in the first 10 to 14 days following CABG surgery found an increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension

NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine, can lead to onset of new hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking thiazides or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs. NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine, should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Blood pressure (BP) should be monitored closely during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy.

Congestive Heart Failure and Edema

Fluid retention, edema, retention of NaCl, oliguria, elevations of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine have been reported in clinical trials with ketorolac tromethamine. Therefore, ketorolac tromethamine should be used only very cautiously in patients with cardiac decompensation, hypertension or similar conditions.

Skin Reactions

NSAIDS, including ketorolac tromethamine, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash, mucosal lesions or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy

In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, ketorolac tromethamine should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

PRECAUTIONSGeneral

Ketorolac tromethamine cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of ketorolac tromethamine in reducing inflammation may diminish the utility of this diagnostic sign in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic Effect

Ketorolac tromethamine should be used with caution in patients with impaired hepatic function or a history of liver disease. Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs including ketorolac tromethamine. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged or may be transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately 3 or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice and fatal fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.

A patient with symptoms and/or signs suggesting liver dysfunction, or in whom an abnormal liver test has occurred, should be evaluated for evidence of the development of a more severe hepatic reaction while on therapy with ketorolac tromethamine. If clinical signs and symptoms consistent with liver disease develop, or if systemic manifestations occur (e.g., eosinophilia, rash, etc.), ketorolac tromethamine should be discontinued.

Hematologic Effect

Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including ketorolac tromethamine, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia. NSAIDs inhibit platelet aggregation and have been shown to prolong bleeding time in some patients. Unlike aspirin, their effect on platelet function is quantitatively less, of shorter duration, and reversible. Patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine who may be adversely affected by alterations in platelet function, such as those with coagulation disorders or patients receiving anticoagulants, should be carefully monitored.

Preexisting Asthma

Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm which can be fatal. Since cross-reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, ketorolac tromethamine should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reaction rates increase with higher doses of ketorolac tromethamine. Practitioners should be alert for the severe complications of treatment with ketorolac tromethamine, such as G.I. ulceration, bleeding and perforation, postoperative bleeding, acute renal failure, anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions and liver failure (see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). These NSAID-related complications can be serious in certain patients for whom ketorolac tromethamine is indicated, especially when the drug is used inappropriately.

In patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials, the most frequently reported adverse experiences in approximately 1% to 10% of patients are:

Additional adverse experiences reported occasionally (greater than 1% in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs in clinical trials) include:

Body as a Whole: fever, infections, sepsis

Cardiovascular: congestive heart failure, palpitation, pallor, tachycardia, syncope

Dermatologic: alopecia, photosensitivity, urticaria

Gastrointestinal: anorexia, dry mouth, eructation, esophagitis, excessive thirst, gastritis,glossitis, hematemesis, hepatitis, increased appetite, jaundice, melena, rectal bleeding

Hemic and Lymphatic: ecchymosis, eosinophilia, epistaxis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia

Metabolic and Nutritional: weight change

Nervous System: abnormal dreams, abnormal thinking, anxiety, asthenia, confusion, depression, euphoria, extrapyramidal symptoms, hallucinations, hyperkinesis, inability to concentrate, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, somnolence, stupor, tremors, vertigo, malaise

Reproductive, female: infertility

Respiratory: asthma, cough, dyspnea, pulmonary edema, rhinitis

Special Senses: abnormal taste, abnormal vision, blurred vision, hearing loss

Urogenital: cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, increased urinary frequency, interstitial nephritis, oliguria/polyuria, proteinuria, renal failure, urinary retention

Other rarely observed reactions (reported from post-marketing experience in patients taking ketorolac tromethamine or other NSAIDs) are:

Body as a Whole: angioedema, death, hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid reaction, laryngeal edema, tongue edema (see WARNINGS), myalgia

Cardiovascular: arrhythmia, bradycardia, chest pain, flushing, hypotension, myocardial infarction, vasculitis

Dermatologic: exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Lyell’s syndrome, bullous reactions including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Gastrointestinal: acute pancreatitis, liver failure, ulcerative stomatitis, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease)

Hemic and Lymphatic: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, postoperative wound hemorrhage (rarely requiring blood transfusion — see Boxed WARNING, WARNINGS, and PRECAUTIONS)

Metabolic and Nutritional: hyperglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia

Nervous System: aseptic meningitis, convulsions, coma, psychosis

Respiratory: bronchospasm, respiratory depression, pneumonia

Special Senses: conjunctivitis

Urogenital: flank pain with or without hematuria and/or azotemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome

Post-Marketing Surveillance Study: A large post-marketing observational, nonrandomized study, involving approximately 10,000 patients receiving ketorolac tromethamine IV or IM, demonstrated that the risk of clinically serious gastrointestinal (G.I.) bleeding was dose dependent (see Tables 3A and 3B). This was particularly true in elderly patients who received an average daily dose greater than 60 mg/day of ketorolac tromethamine IV or IM (see Table 3A).


OVERDOSAGESymptoms and Signs

Symptoms following acute NSAIDs overdoses are usually limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain, which are generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression and coma may occur, but are rare. Anaphylactoid reactions have been reported with therapeutic ingestion of NSAIDs and may occur following an overdose.

Treatment

Patients should be managed by symptomatic and supportive care following a NSAIDs overdose. There are no specific antidotes. Emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 g to 100 g in adults, 1 g/kg to 2 g/kg in children) and/or osmotic cathartic may be indicated in patients seen within 4 hours of ingestion with symptoms or following a large oral overdose (5 to 10 times the usual dose). Forced diuresis, alkalization of urine, hemodialysis or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

Single overdoses of ketorolac tromethamine have been variously associated with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, hyperventilation, peptic ulcers and/or erosive gastritis and renal dysfunction which have resolved after discontinuation of dosing.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ketorolac tromethamine and other treatment options before deciding to use ketorolac tromethamine. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. In adults, the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days. In adults, the use of ketorolac tromethamine tablets is only indicated as continuation therapy to IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine.

Transition from IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine (single- or multiple-dose) to multiple-dose ketorolac tromethamine tablets: Patients age 17 to 64: 20 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not greater than40 mg/dayPatients age ≥65, renally impaired, and/or weight greater than 50 kg (110 lbs): 10 mg PO once followed by 10 mg q4 to 6 hours prn not greater than40 mg/dayNote:

Oral formulation should not be given as an initial dose

Use minimum effective dose for the individual patient

Do not shorten dosing interval of 4 to 6 hours

Total duration of treatment in adult patients: the combined duration of use of IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine and ketorolac tromethamine tablets is not to exceed 5 days.

The following table summarizes ketorolac tromethamine tablets dosing instructions in terms of age group


HOW SUPPLIED

Ketorolac Tromethamine Tablets, USP are available containing 10 mg of ketorolac tromethamine, USP. The tablets are white film-coated, round, unscored tablets debossed with M over 134 on one side and blank on the other side. They are available as follows:

NDC 0378-1134-01 bottles of 100 tablets

WARNING

Ketorolac tromethamine tablets, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), are indicated for the short-term (up to 5 days in adults), management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level and only as continuation treatment following IV or IM dosing of ketorolac tromethamine, if necessary. The total combined duration of use of ketorolac tromethamine should not exceed 5 days.

Ketorolac tromethamine tablets are not indicated for use in pediatric patients and it is NOT indicated for minor or chronic painful conditions. Increasing the dose of ketorolac tromethamine tablets beyond a daily maximum of 40 mg in adults will not provide better efficacy but will increase the risk of developing serious adverse events.

GASTROINTESTINAL RISK

  • Ketorolac tromethamine can cause peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding and/or perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Therefore, ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with active peptic ulcer disease, in patients with recent gastrointestinal bleeding or perforation, and in patients with a history of peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding. Elderly patients are at greater risk for serious gastrointestinal events (see WARNINGS).

CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

  • NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may increase with duration of use. Patients with cardiovascular disease or risk factors for cardiovascular disease may be at greater risk (see WARNINGS and CLINICAL TRIALS).
  • Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED for the treatment of perioperative pain in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (see WARNINGS).

RENAL RISK

  • Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients with advanced renal impairment and in patients at risk for renal failure due to volume depletion (see WARNINGS).

RISK OF BLEEDING

  • Ketorolac tromethamine inhibits platelet function and is, therefore, CONTRAINDICATED in patients with suspected or confirmed cerebrovascular bleeding, patients with hemorrhagic diathesis, incomplete hemostasis and those at high risk of bleeding (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).

Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED as prophylactic analgesic before any major surgery.

RISK DURING LABOR AND DELIVERY

  • The use of ketorolac tromethamine in labor and delivery is contraindicated because it may adversely affect fetal circulation and inhibit uterine contractions. The use of ketorolac tromethamine is contraindicated in nursing mothers because of the potential adverse effects of prostaglandin-inhibiting drugs on neonates.

CONCOMITANT USE WITH NSAIDS

  • Ketorolac tromethamine is CONTRAINDICATED in patients currently receiving aspirin or NSAIDs because of the cumulative risk of inducing serious NSAID-related side effects.

SPECIAL POPULATIONS

  • Dosage should be adjusted for patients 65 years or older, for patients under 50 kg (110 lbs) of body weight (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION) and for patients with moderately elevated serum creatinine (see WARNINGS).

KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE - ketorolac tromethamine tablet, film coated 
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

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MEDICATION GUIDE FOR NON-STEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS (NSAIDs)

(See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID medicines.)

What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases:

  • with longer use of NSAID medicines
  • in people who have heart disease

NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).”

NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding:

  • can happen without warning symptoms
  • may cause death

The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:

  • taking medicines called “corticosteroids” and “anticoagulants”
  • longer use
  • smoking 
  • drinking alcohol 
  • older age 
  • having poor health

NSAID medicines should only be used:

  • exactly as prescribed 
  • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment 
  • for the shortest time needed

What are Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as:

  • different types of arthritis 
  • menstrual cramps and other types of short-term pain

Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)?

Do not take an NSAID medicine:

  • if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine 
  • for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery

Tell your healthcare provider:

  • about all of your medical conditions.
  • about all of the medicines you take. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist. 
  • if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy.
  • if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor.

What are the possible side effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?

Serious side effects include:

  • heart attack
  • stroke
  • high blood pressure
  • heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention)
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • asthma attacks in people who have asthma

Other side effects include:

  • stomach pain
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • gas
  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • dizziness

Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing 
  • chest pain 
  • weakness in one part or side of your body 
  • slurred speech 
  • swelling of the face or throat

Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea 
  • more tired or weaker than usual 
  • itching 
  • your skin or eyes look yellow 
  • stomach pain 
  • flu-like symptoms 
  • vomit blood 
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar 
  • unusual weight gain 
  • skin rash or blisters with fever 
  • swelling of the arms and legs, hands and feet

These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to your healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about NSAID medicines.

Other information about Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Aspirin is an NSAID medicine but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. 
  • Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Revised: 08/2008Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Image of labelImage of label


KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE 
ketorolac tromethamine tablet, film coated
Product Information
Product Type HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG Item Code (Source) NDC:49999-130(NDC:0378-1134)
Route of Administration ORAL DEA Schedule     
Active Ingredient/Active Moiety
Ingredient Name Basis of Strength Strength
KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE (KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE) KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE 10 mg
Inactive Ingredients
Ingredient Name Strength
ANHYDROUS LACTOSE  
SILICON DIOXIDE  
CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM  
HYPROMELLOSES  
MAGNESIUM STEARATE  
CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE  
POLYDEXTROSE  
POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL  
SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE  
TITANIUM DIOXIDE  
TRIACETIN  
Product Characteristics
Color white Score no score
Shape ROUND Size 8mm
Flavor Imprint Code M;134
Contains     
Packaging
# Item Code Package Description Multilevel Packaging
1 NDC:49999-130-20 20 TABLET, FILM COATED ( BOTTLE) in 1 BOTTLE, PLASTIC None

Marketing Information
Marketing Category Application Number or Monograph Citation Marketing Start Date Marketing End Date
ANDA ANDA074761 11/17/2010

Labeler - Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC (831276758)
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC 831276758 repack
Establishment
Name Address ID/FEI Operations
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc 059295980 manufacture

Revised: 11/2010 Lake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC



Source: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine


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