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FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
INTELENCE®1, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, is indicated for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adult patients, who have evidence of viral replication and HIV-1 strains resistant to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and other antiretroviral agents.
This indication is based on Week 48 analyses from 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of INTELENCE®. Both studies were conducted in clinically advanced, 3-class antiretroviral (NNRTI, N[t]RTI, PI) treatment-experienced adults.
The following points should be considered when initiating therapy with INTELENCE®:
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended oral dose of INTELENCE® tablets is 200 mg (two 100 mg tablets) taken twice daily following a meal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The type of food does not affect the exposure to etravirine. Patients who are unable to swallow INTELENCE® tablets whole may disperse the tablets in a glass of water. Once dispersed, patients should stir the dispersion well and drink it immediately. The glass should be rinsed with water several times and each rinse completely swallowed to ensure the entire dose is consumed.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
100 mg white to off-white oval tablets debossed with "TMC125" on one side and "100" on the other side.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Severe Skin and Hypersensitivity Reactions
Severe, potentially life-threatening, and fatal skin reactions have been reported. These include cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme. Hypersensitivity reactions have also been reported and were characterized by rash, constitutional findings, and sometimes organ dysfunction, including hepatic failure. In Phase 3 clinical trials, Grade 3 and 4 rashes were reported in 1.3% of subjects receiving INTELENCE® compared to 0.2% of placebo subjects. A total of 2.2% of HIV-1-infected subjects receiving INTELENCE® discontinued from Phase 3 trials due to rash [see Adverse Reactions (6)]. Rash occurred most commonly during the first 6 weeks of therapy.
Discontinue INTELENCE® immediately if signs or symptoms of severe skin reactions or hypersensitivity reactions develop (including, but not limited to, severe rash or rash accompanied by fever, general malaise, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, conjunctivitis, facial edema, hepatitis, eosinophilia, angioedema). Clinical status including liver transaminases should be monitored and appropriate therapy initiated. Delay in stopping INTELENCE® treatment after the onset of severe rash may result in a life-threatening reaction.
5.2 Fat Redistribution
Redistribution/accumulation of body fat, including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and "cushingoid appearance" have been observed in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The mechanism and long-term consequences of these events are currently unknown. A causal relationship has not been established.
5.3 Immune Reconstitution Syndrome
Immune reconstitution syndrome has been reported in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy, including INTELENCE®. During the initial phase of combination antiretroviral treatment, patients whose immune system responds may develop an inflammatory response to indolent or residual opportunistic infections (such as Mycobacterium avium complex, cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, and tuberculosis), which may necessitate further evaluation and treatment.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following adverse reactions are described in greater detail in other sections:
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The safety assessment is based on all data from 1203 subjects in the Phase 3 placebo-controlled trials, TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, conducted in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adult subjects, 599 of whom received INTELENCE® (200 mg b.i.d.). In these pooled trials, the median exposure for subjects in the INTELENCE® arm and placebo arm was 52.3 and 51.0 weeks, respectively. Discontinuations due to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were 5.2% in the INTELENCE® arm and 2.6% in the placebo arm.
The most frequently reported ADR at least Grade 2 in severity was rash (10.0%). Stevens-Johnson syndrome, drug hypersensitivity reaction and erythema multiforme were reported in < 0.1% of subjects during clinical development with INTELENCE® [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. A total of 2.2% of HIV-1-infected subjects in Phase 3 trials receiving INTELENCE® discontinued due to rash. In general, in clinical trials, rash was mild to moderate, occurred primarily in the second week of therapy, and was infrequent after Week 4. Rash generally resolved within 1-2 weeks on continued therapy. The incidence of rash was higher in women compared to men in the INTELENCE® arm in the Phase 3 trials. Patients with a history of NNRTI-related rash did not appear to be at increased risk for the development of INTELENCE®-related rash compared to patients without a history of NNRTI-related rash.
Common Adverse Reactions
Clinical ADRs of moderate intensity or greater (≥ Grade 2) and reported in ≥ 2% of subjects treated with INTELENCE® and occurring at a higher rate compared to placebo (excess of 1%) are presented in Table 1. Laboratory abnormalities considered ADRs are included in Table 2.
Less Common Adverse Reactions
Treatment-emergent ADRs occurring in less than 2% of subjects (n=599) receiving INTELENCE® and of at least moderate intensity (≥ Grade 2) are listed below by body system:
Cardiac Disorders: myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: vertigo
Eye Disorders: blurred vision
Gastrointestinal Disorders: gastroesophageal reflux disease, flatulence, gastritis, abdominal distension, pancreatitis, constipation, dry mouth, hematemesis, retching, stomatitis
General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: sluggishness
Hematologic Disorders: hemolytic anemia
Hepatobiliary Disorders: hepatic failure, hepatomegaly, cytolytic hepatitis, hepatic steatosis, hepatitis
Immune System Disorders: drug hypersensitivity, immune reconstitution syndrome
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: diabetes mellitus, anorexia, dyslipidemia
Nervous System Disorders: paraesthesia, somnolence, convulsion, hypoesthesia, amnesia, syncope, disturbance in attention, hypersomnia, tremor
Psychiatric Disorders: anxiety, sleep disorders, abnormal dreams, confusional state, disorientation, nervousness, nightmares
Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia
Respiratory,Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: exertional dyspnea, bronchospasm
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: night sweats, lipohypertrophy, prurigo, hyperhidrosis, dry skin, swelling face
Additional ADRs of at least moderate intensity observed in other trials were acquired lipodystrophy, angioneurotic edema, erythema multiforme and haemorrhagic stroke, each reported in no more than 0.5% of subjects.
Laboratory Abnormalities in Treatment-Experienced Patients
Selected Grade 2 to Grade 4 laboratory abnormalities that represent a worsening from baseline observed in adult subjects treated with INTELENCE® are presented in Table 2.
Patients co-infected with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus
In Phase 3 trials TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, 139 subjects (12.3%) with chronic hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection out of 1129 subjects were permitted to enroll. AST and ALT abnormalities occurred more frequently in hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infected subjects for both treatment groups. Grade 2 or higher laboratory abnormalities that represent a worsening from baseline of AST, ALT or total bilirubin occurred in 27.8%, 25.0% and 7.1% respectively, of INTELENCE®-treated co-infected subjects as compared to 6.7%, 7.5% and 1.8% of non-co-infected INTELENCE®-treated subjects. In general, adverse events reported by INTELENCE®-treated subjects with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection were similar to INTELENCE®-treated subjects without hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus co-infection.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following events have been identified during postmarketing use of INTELENCE®. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune System Disorders: Severe hypersensitivity reactions including cases of hepatic failure have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: rhabdomyolysis
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: Fatal cases of toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Etravirine is a substrate of CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Therefore, co-administration of INTELENCE® with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of INTELENCE® (see Table 3). [See also Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]
Etravirine is an inducer of CYP3A and inhibitor of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein. Therefore, co-administration of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 or are transported by P-glycoprotein with INTELENCE® may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of the co-administered drug(s) (see Table 3). [See also Clinical Pharmacology (12.3).]
Table 3 shows the established and other potentially significant drug interactions based on which, alterations in dose or regimen of INTELENCE® and/or co-administered drug may be recommended. Drugs that are not recommended for co-administration with INTELENCE® are also included in Table 3.
In addition to the drugs included in Table 3, the interaction between INTELENCE® and the following drugs were evaluated in clinical studies and no dose adjustment is needed for either drug [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]: didanosine, enfuvirtide (ENF), ethinylestradiol/norethindrone, omeprazole, paroxetine, raltegravir, ranitidine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category B
No adequate and well-controlled studies of INTELENCE® use in pregnant women have been conducted. In addition, no pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted in pregnant patients. Animal reproduction studies in rats and rabbits at systemic exposures equivalent to those at the recommended human dose of 400 mg/day revealed no evidence of fetal harm. INTELENCE® should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
8.3 Nursing mothers
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV. It is not known whether etravirine is secreted in human milk. Because of both the potential for HIV transmission and the potential for adverse reactions in nursing infants, mothers should be instructed not to breastfeed if they are receiving INTELENCE®.
8.5 Geriatric use
Clinical studies of INTELENCE® did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
8.6 Hepatic Impairment
No dose adjustment of INTELENCE® is required in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of INTELENCE® have not been evaluated in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C).
8.7 Renal Impairment
Since the renal clearance of etravirine is negligible (< 1.2%), a decrease in total body clearance is not expected in patients with renal impairment. No dose adjustments are required in patients with renal impairment. As etravirine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
There is no specific antidote for overdose with INTELENCE®. Human experience of overdose with INTELENCE® is limited. The highest dose studied in healthy volunteers was 400 mg once daily. Treatment of overdose with INTELENCE® consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of the patient. If indicated, elimination of unabsorbed active substance is to be achieved by emesis or gastric lavage. Administration of activated charcoal may also be used to aid in removal of unabsorbed active substance. Because etravirine is highly protein bound, dialysis is unlikely to result in significant removal of the active substance.
INTELENCE® (etravirine) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).
The chemical name for etravirine is 4-[[6-amino-5-bromo-2-[(4-cyanophenyl)amino]-4-pyrimidinyl]oxy]-3,5-dimethylbenzonitrile. Its molecular formula is C20H15BrN6O and its molecular weight is 435.28. Etravirine has the following structural formula:
Etravirine is a white to slightly yellowish brown powder. Etravirine is practically insoluble in water over a wide pH range. It is very slightly soluble in propylene glycol and slightly soluble in ethanol. Etravirine is soluble in polyethylene glycol (PEG)400 and freely soluble in some organic solvents (e.g., N,N-dimethylformamide and tetrahydrofuran).
INTELENCE® is available as a white to off-white, oval tablet for oral administration containing 100 mg of etravirine. Each tablet contains the inactive ingredients hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and lactose monohydrate.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Etravirine is an antiviral drug [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
Effects on Electrocardiogram
In a randomized, double-blind, active, and placebo-controlled crossover study, 41 healthy subjects were administered INTELENCE® 200 mg b.i.d., INTELENCE® 400 mg q.d., placebo, and moxifloxacin 400 mg. After 8 days of dosing, etravirine did not prolong the QT interval. The maximum mean (upper 1-sided 95% CI) baseline and placebo-adjusted QTcF were 0.6 ms (3.3 ms) for 200 mg b.i.d. and -1.0 ms (2.5 ms) for 400 mg q.d. dosing regimens.
Pharmacokinetics in Adults
The pharmacokinetic properties of INTELENCE® were determined in healthy adult subjects and in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adult subjects. The systemic exposures (AUC) to etravirine were lower in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy subjects.
Note: The median protein binding adjusted EC50 for MT4 cells infected with HIV-1/IIIB in vitro = 4 ng/mL.
Absorption and Bioavailability
Following oral administration, etravirine was absorbed with a Tmax of about 2.5 to 4 hours. The absolute oral bioavailability of INTELENCE® is unknown.
In healthy subjects, the absorption of etravirine is not affected by co-administration of oral ranitidine or omeprazole, drugs that increase gastric pH.
Effects of Food on Oral Absorption
The systemic exposure (AUC) to etravirine was decreased by about 50% when INTELENCE® was administered under fasting conditions, as compared to when INTELENCE® was administered following a meal. Therefore, INTELENCE® should always be taken following a meal. Within the range of meals studied, the systemic exposures to etravirine were similar. The total caloric content of the various meals evaluated ranged from 345 kilocalories (17 grams fat) to 1160 kilocalories (70 grams fat). [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Etravirine is about 99.9% bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin (99.6%) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (97.66%-99.02%) in vitro. The distribution of etravirine into compartments other than plasma (e.g., cerebrospinal fluid, genital tract secretions) has not been evaluated in humans.
In vitro experiments with human liver microsomes (HLMs) indicate that etravirine primarily undergoes metabolism by CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 enzymes. The major metabolites, formed by methyl hydroxylation of the dimethylbenzonitrile moiety, were at least 90% less active than etravirine against wild-type HIV in cell culture.
After single dose oral administration of 800 mg 14C-etravirine, 93.7% and 1.2% of the administered dose of 14C-etravirine was recovered in the feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged etravirine accounted for 81.2% to 86.4% of the administered dose in feces. Unchanged etravirine was not detected in urine. The mean (± standard deviation) terminal elimination half-life of etravirine was about 41 (± 20) hours.
Etravirine is primarily metabolized by the liver. The steady state pharmacokinetic parameters of etravirine were similar after multiple dose administration of INTELENCE® to subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 16), mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A, n = 8), and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B, n = 8). The effect of severe hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of etravirine has not been evaluated.
Hepatitis B and/or Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of the TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 trials showed reduced clearance for etravirine in HIV-1-infected subjects with hepatitis B and/or C virus co-infection. Based upon the safety profile of INTELENCE® [see Adverse Reactions (6)], no dose adjustment is necessary in patients co-infected with hepatitis B and/or C virus.
The pharmacokinetics of etravirine have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. The results from a mass balance study with 14C-etravirine showed that <1.2% of the administered dose of etravirine is excreted in the urine as metabolites. No unchanged drug was detected in the urine. As etravirine is highly bound to plasma proteins, it is unlikely that it will be significantly removed by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
No significant pharmacokinetic differences have been observed between men and women. A limited number of women were included in clinical studies.
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of etravirine in HIV-infected subjects did not show an effect of race on exposure to etravirine.
Population pharmacokinetic analysis in HIV-infected subjects showed that etravirine pharmacokinetics are not considerably different within the age range (18 to 77 years) evaluated [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
[See also Drug Interactions (7).]
Etravirine is a substrate of CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Therefore, co-administration of INTELENCE® with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of INTELENCE®.
Etravirine is an inducer of CYP3A and inhibitor of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and P-glycoprotein. Therefore, co-administration of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 or are transported by P-glycoprotein with INTELENCE® may alter the therapeutic effect or adverse reaction profile of the co-administered drug(s).
Drug interaction studies were performed with INTELENCE® and other drugs likely to be co-administered and some drugs commonly used as probes for pharmacokinetic interactions. The effects of co-administration of other drugs on the AUC, Cmax, and Cmin values of etravirine are summarized in Table 5 (effect of other drugs on INTELENCE®). The effect of co-administration of INTELENCE® on the AUC, Cmax, and Cmin values of other drugs are summarized in Table 6 (effect of INTELENCE® on other drugs). For information regarding clinical recommendations, see Drug Interactions (7).
Mechanism of Action
Etravirine is an NNRTI of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Etravirine binds directly to reverse transcriptase (RT) and blocks the RNA-dependent and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities by causing a disruption of the enzyme's catalytic site. Etravirine does not inhibit the human DNA polymerases α, β, and γ.
Antiviral Activity in Cell Culture
Etravirine exhibited activity against laboratory strains and clinical isolates of wild-type HIV-1 in acutely infected T-cell lines, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and human monocytes/macrophages with median EC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 5.5 nM (i.e., 0.4 to 2.4 ng/mL). Etravirine demonstrated antiviral activity in cell culture against a broad panel of HIV-1 group M isolates (subtype A, B, C, D, E, F, G) with EC50 values ranging from 0.29 to 1.65 nM and EC50 values ranging from 11.5 to 21.7 nM against group O primary isolates. Etravirine did not show antagonism when studied in combination with the following antiretroviral drugs—the NNRTIs delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine; the N(t)RTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zalcitabine, and zidovudine; the PIs amprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and tipranavir; the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide; the integrase strand transfer inhibitor raltegravir and the CCR5 co-receptor antagonist maraviroc.
In Cell Culture
Etravirine-resistant strains were selected in cell culture originating from wild-type HIV-1 of different origins and subtypes, as well as NNRTI resistant HIV-1. Development of reduced susceptibility to etravirine typically required more than one substitution in reverse transcriptase of which the following were observed most frequently: L100I, E138K, E138G, V179I, Y181C, and M230I.
In Treatment-Experienced Subjects
In the Phase 3 trials TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, substitutions that developed most commonly in subjects with virologic failure at Week 48 to the INTELENCE®-containing regimen were V179F, V179I, and Y181C which usually emerged in a background of multiple other NNRTI resistance-associated substitutions. In all the trials conducted with INTELENCE® in HIV-1 infected subjects, the following substitutions emerged most commonly: L100I, E138G, V179F, V179I, Y181C and H221Y. Other NNRTI-resistance associated substitutions which emerged on etravirine treatment in < 10% of the virologic failure isolates included K101E/H/P, K103N/R, V106I/M, V108I, Y181I, Y188L, V189I, G190S/C, N348I and R356K. The emergence of NNRTI substitutions on etravirine treatment contributed to decreased susceptibility to etravirine with a median fold-change in etravirine susceptibility of 40-fold from reference and a median fold-change of 6-fold from baseline.
Site-Directed NNRTI Mutant Virus
Etravirine showed antiviral activity against 55 of 65 HIV-1 strains (85%) with single amino acid substitutions at RT positions associated with NNRTI resistance, including the most commonly found K103N. The single amino acid substitutions associated with an etravirine reduction in susceptibility > 3-fold were K101A, K101P, K101Q, E138G, E138Q, Y181C, Y181I, Y181T, Y181V, and M230L, and of these, the greatest reductions were Y181I (13-fold change in EC50 value) and Y181V (17-fold change in EC50 value). Mutant strains containing a single NNRTI resistance associated substitution (K101P, K101Q, E138Q, or M230L) had cross-resistance between etravirine and efavirenz. The majority (39 of 61; 64%) of the NNRTI mutant viruses with 2 or 3 amino acid substitutions associated with NNRTI resistance had decreased susceptibility to etravirine (fold-change > 3). The highest levels of resistance to etravirine were observed for HIV-1 harboring a combination of substitutions V179F + Y181C (187 fold-change), V179F + Y181I (123 fold-change), or V179F + Y181C + F227C (888 fold-change).
Etravirine retained a fold-change ≤ 3 against 60% of 6171 NNRTI-resistant clinical isolates. In the same panel, the proportion of clinical isolates resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz and/or nevirapine (defined as a fold-change above their respective biological cutoff values in the assay) was 79%, 87%, and 95%, respectively. In TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, 34% of the baseline isolates had decreased susceptibility to etravirine (fold-change > 3) and 60%, 69%, and 78% of all baseline isolates were resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine, respectively. Of subjects who received etravirine and were virologic failures in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, 90%, 84%, and 96% of viral isolates obtained at the time of treatment failure were resistant to delavirdine, efavirenz, and nevirapine, respectively. Therefore, cross-resistance to delavirdine, efavirenz, and/or nevirapine is expected after virologic failure with an etravirine-containing regimen for the virologic failure isolates.
Baseline Genotype/Phenotype and Virologic Outcome Analyses
In TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, the presence at baseline of the substitutions L100I, E138A, I167V, V179D, V179F, Y181I, Y181V, or G190S was associated with a decreased virologic response to etravirine. Additional substitutions associated with a decreased virologic response to etravirine when in the presence of 3 or more additional 2008 IAS-USA defined NNRTI substitutions include A98G, K101H, K103R, V106I, V179T, and Y181C. The presence of K103N, which was the most prevalent NNRTI substitution in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 at baseline, did not affect the response in the INTELENCE® arm. Overall, response rates to etravirine decreased as the number of baseline NNRTI substitutions increased (shown as the proportion of subjects achieving viral load < 50 plasma HIV RNA copies/mL at Week 48) (Table 7).
Response rates assessed by baseline etravirine phenotype are shown in Table 8. These baseline phenotype groups are based on the select subject populations in TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 and are not meant to represent definitive clinical susceptibility breakpoints for INTELENCE®. The data are provided to give clinicians information on the likelihood of virologic success based on pre-treatment susceptibility to etravirine in treatment-experienced patients.
The proportion of virologic responders (viral load < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) by the phenotypic susceptibility score (PSS) of the background therapy, including enfuvirtide, is shown in Table 9.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis
Etravirine was evaluated for carcinogenic potential by oral gavage administration to mice and rats for up to approximately 104 weeks. Daily doses of 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered to mice and doses of 70, 200 and 600 mg/kg were administered to rats in the initial period of approximately 41-52 weeks. The high and middle doses were subsequently adjusted due to tolerability and reduced by 50% in mice and by 50-66% in rats to allow for completion of the studies. In the mouse study, statistically significant increases in the incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma and incidences of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas combined were observed in treated females. In the rat study, no statistically significant increases in tumor findings were observed in either sex. The relevance of these liver tumor findings in mice to humans is not known. Because of tolerability of the formulation in these rodent studies, maximum systemic drug exposures achieved at the doses tested were lower than those in humans at the clinical dose (400 mg/day), with animal vs. human AUC ratios being 0.6-fold (mice) and 0.2-0.7-fold (rats).
Etravirine tested negative in the in vitro Ames reverse mutation assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocyte, and in vitro clastogenicity mouse lymphoma assay, tested in the absence and presence of a metabolic activation system. Etravirine did not induce chromosomal damage in the in vivo micronucleus test in mice. [See Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2).]
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
Reproductive Toxicology Studies
Developmental toxicity studies were performed in rabbits (at oral doses up to 375 mg/kg/day) and rats (at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day). In both species, no treatment-related embryo-fetal effects including malformations were observed. In addition, no treatment-related effects were observed in a separate pre- and postnatal study performed in rats at oral doses up to 500 mg/kg/day. The systemic drug exposures achieved in these animal studies were equivalent to those at the recommended human dose (400 mg/day).
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Treatment-Experienced Subjects
The clinical efficacy of INTELENCE® is derived from the analyses of 48-week data from 2 ongoing, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trials, TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 (DUET-1 and DUET-2). These trials are identical in design and the results below are pooled data from the two trials.
TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 are Phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the safety and antiretroviral activity of INTELENCE® in combination with a background regimen (BR) as compared to placebo in combination with a BR. Eligible subjects were treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA > 5000 copies/mL while on a stable antiretroviral regimen for at least 8 weeks. In addition, subjects had 1 or more NNRTI resistance-associated mutations at screening or from prior genotypic analysis, and 3 or more of the following primary PI mutations at screening: D30N, V32I, L33F, M46I/L, I47A/V, G48V, I50L/V, V82A/F/L/S/T, I84V, N88S, or L90M. Randomization was stratified by the intended use of enfuvirtide (ENF) in the BR, previous use of darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/rtv), and screening viral load. Virologic response was defined as undetectable viral load (< 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) at 48 weeks.
All study subjects received DRV/rtv as part of their BR, and at least 2 other investigator-selected antiretroviral drugs (N[t]RTIs with or without ENF). Of INTELENCE®-treated subjects, 25.5% used ENF for the first time (de novo) and 20.0% re-used ENF. Of placebo-treated subjects, 26.5% used de novo ENF and 20.4% re-used ENF.
In the pooled analysis for TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216, demographics and baseline characteristics were balanced between the INTELENCE® arm and the placebo arm. Table 10 displays selected demographic and baseline disease characteristics of the subjects in the INTELENCE® and placebo arms.
Efficacy at Week 48 for subjects in the INTELENCE® and placebo arms for the pooled TMC125-C206 and TMC125-C216 study populations are shown in Table 11.
At Week 48, 70.8% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA < 400 copies/mL as compared to 46.4% of placebo-treated subjects. The mean decrease in plasma HIV-1 RNA from baseline to Week 48 was –2.23 log10 copies/mL for INTELENCE®-treated subjects and –1.46 log10 copies/mL for placebo-treated subjects. The mean CD4+ cell count increase from baseline for INTELENCE®-treated subjects was 96 cells/mm3 and 68 cells/mm3 for placebo-treated subjects.
Of the study population who either re-used or did not use ENF, 57.4% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 31.7% of placebo-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL. Of the study population using ENF de novo, 67.3% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 57.2% of placebo-treated subjects achieved HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL.
Treatment-emergent CDC category C events occurred in 4% of INTELENCE®-treated subjects and 8.4% of placebo-treated subjects.
Study TMC125-C227 was a randomized, exploratory, active-controlled, open-label, Phase 2b trial. Eligible subjects were treatment-experienced, PI-naïve HIV-1-infected patients with genotypic evidence of NNRTI resistance at screening or from prior genotypic analysis. The virologic response was evaluated in 116 subjects who were randomized to INTELENCE® (n=59) or an investigator-selected PI (n=57), each given with 2 investigator-selected N(t)RTIs. INTELENCE®-treated subjects had lower antiviral responses associated with reduced susceptibility to the N(t)RTIs and to INTELENCE® as compared to the control PI-treated subjects.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
INTELENCE® tablets are supplied as white to off-white, oval tablets containing 100 mg of etravirine. Each tablet is debossed with "TMC125" on one side and "100" on the other side.
INTELENCE® tablets are packaged in bottles in the following configuration: 100 mg tablets—bottles of 120 (NDC 54868-5864-0). Each bottle contains 3 desiccant pouches.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
A statement to patients and healthcare providers is included on the product's bottle label: ALERT: Find out about medicines that should NOT be taken with INTELENCE® from your healthcare provider. A Patient Package Insert for INTELENCE® is available for patient information.
Patients should be informed that INTELENCE® is not a cure for HIV infection and that they may continue to develop opportunistic infections and other complications associated with HIV disease. Patients should be informed that INTELENCE® does not reduce the risk of passing HIV to others through sexual contact, sharing needles, or being exposed to blood. Patients should be advised to continue to practice safer sex and to use latex or polyurethane condoms to lower the chance of sexual contact with any body fluids such as semen, vaginal secretions or blood. Patients should also be advised to never re-use or share needles. Patients should be told that sustained decreases in plasma HIV RNA have been associated with a reduced risk of progression to AIDS and death. Patients should remain under the care of a physician while using INTELENCE®.
Patients should be advised to take INTELENCE® following a meal twice a day as prescribed. The type of food does not affect the exposure to etravirine. Patients should be instructed to swallow the tablets as a whole with a liquid such as water. Patients who are unable to swallow the INTELENCE® tablets whole may disperse the tablets in a glass of water. Once dispersed, patients should stir the dispersion well, and drink it immediately. The glass should be rinsed with water several times, and each rinse completely swallowed to ensure the entire dose is consumed. INTELENCE® must always be used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. Patients should not alter the dose of INTELENCE® or discontinue therapy with INTELENCE® without consulting their physician. If the patient misses a dose of INTELENCE® within 6 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should be told to take INTELENCE® following a meal as soon as possible, and then take the next dose of INTELENCE® at the regularly scheduled time. If a patient misses a dose of INTELENCE® by more than 6 hours of the time it is usually taken, the patient should be told not to take the missed dose and simply resume the usual dosing schedule. Inform the patient that he or she should not take more or less than the prescribed dose of INTELENCE® at any one time.
INTELENCE® may interact with many drugs; therefore, patients should be advised to report to their healthcare provider the use of any other prescription or nonprescription medication or herbal products, including St. John's wort.
Patients should be informed that severe and potentially life-threatening rash has been reported with INTELENCE®. Rash has been reported most commonly in the first 6 weeks of therapy. Patients should be advised to immediately contact their healthcare provider if they develop rash. Instruct patients to immediately stop taking INTELENCE® and seek medical attention if they develop a rash associated with any of the following symptoms as it may be a sign of a more serious reaction such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis or severe hypersensitivity: fever, generally ill feeling, extreme tiredness, muscle or joint aches, blisters, oral lesions, eye inflammation, facial swelling, swelling of the eyes, lips, mouth, breathing difficulty, and/or signs and symptoms of liver problems (e.g., yellowing of your skin or whites of your eyes, dark or tea colored urine, pale colored stools/bowel movements, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, or pain, aching or sensitivity on your right side below your ribs). Patients should understand that if severe rash occurs, they will be closely monitored, laboratory tests will be ordered and appropriate therapy will be initiated.
Patients should be informed that redistribution or accumulation of body fat may occur in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, including INTELENCE®, and that the cause and long-term health effects of these conditions are not known at this time.
Manufactured for Tibotec, Inc. by:
Patent Numbers: 6,878,717 and 7,037,917; and other U.S. patents pending.
© Tibotec, Inc. 2008
Relabeling of "Additional Barcode Label" by:
FDA-approved patient labeling
Important: Ask your doctor or pharmacist about medicines that should NOT be taken with INTELENCE®. For more information, read the section "Can INTELENCE® be taken with other medicines?".
Read this information carefully before you start taking INTELENCE® and each time you renew your prescription, as new information may be available. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with your doctor. You and your doctor should discuss your treatment with INTELENCE® when you start taking it and at regular checkups. You should not change or stop treatment without first talking with your doctor.
What is INTELENCE®?
INTELENCE® must be taken in combination with other anti-HIV medicines.
How does INTELENCE® work?
Reducing the amount of HIV and increasing the CD4+ (T) cell count may improve your immune system and, as a result, reduce the risk of death or infections that can happen when your immune system is weak (opportunistic infections).
Does INTELENCE® cure HIV or AIDS?
No. INTELENCE® does not cure HIV infection or AIDS. Right now, there is no cure for HIV infection. People taking INTELENCE® may still get opportunistic infections or other conditions that happen with HIV infection. Opportunistic infections are infections that develop because the immune system is weak. Some of the other conditions that can happen with HIV are: pneumonia, herpes virus infection, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections.
Does INTELENCE® reduce the risk of passing HIV to others?
No. INTELENCE® does not reduce the risk of passing HIV to others through sexual contact, sharing needles, or being exposed to your blood.
Ask your doctor if you have any questions on how to prevent passing HIV to other people.
What should I tell my doctor before I take INTELENCE®?
Together with your doctor, you need to decide whether taking INTELENCE® is right for you.
Tell your doctor about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
Can INTELENCE® be taken with other medicines?2
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take including prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements, including St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Some medicines may interact with INTELENCE®.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of your medicines and show it to your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine. Your doctor and your pharmacist can tell you if you can take these medicines with INTELENCE®. Do not start any new medicines while you are taking INTELENCE® without first talking with your doctor or pharmacist. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for a list of medicines that can interact with INTELENCE®.
Tell your doctor if you take other HIV medicines. INTELENCE® can be combined with most HIV medicines while some HIV medicines are not recommended.
Tell your doctor if you are taking any of the following medicines:
This is not a complete list of medicines that you should tell your doctor about. Know and keep track of all the medicines you take and have a list of them with you. Show this list to all of your doctors and pharmacists any time you get a new medicine. Both your doctor and your pharmacist can tell you if you can take these other medicines with INTELENCE®.
How should I take INTELENCE®?
What are the possible side effects of INTELENCE®?
Skin rash is a common side effect of INTELENCE®. Rash can be serious and potentially life-threatening. Call your doctor right away if you get a rash. Your doctor will decide if INTELENCE® must be stopped.
Other common side effects of INTELENCE® include tingling or pain in hands or feet and numbness.
Other side effects of INTELENCE®, which can be serious, include muscle pain, tenderness or weakness.
As with other anti-HIV medicines, INTELENCE® may cause side effects, including:
Tell your doctor right away about these or any other unusual symptoms. If the condition does not go away or worsens, get medical help.
These are not all of the possible side effects with INTELENCE®. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist.
How should I store INTELENCE® tablets?
Keep the bottle tightly closed to protect INTELENCE® from moisture. The bottle contains 3 little pouches of drying agent (desiccants) to keep the tablets dry. Keep the pouches in the bottle. Do not eat the pouches. Keep INTELENCE® and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General Advice about INTELENCE®
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Patient Information leaflet. Do not use INTELENCE® for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give INTELENCE® to other people even if they have the same condition you have. It may harm them.
This leaflet provides a summary of the most important information about INTELENCE®. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about INTELENCE® that is written for health professionals. For more information, you may also call Tibotec Therapeutics at 1-877-REACH-TT or 1-877-732-2488.
What are the ingredients in INTELENCE®?
Active ingredient: Each tablet contains 100 mg of etravirine.
Inactive ingredients: hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and lactose monohydrate
Manufactured for Tibotec, Inc. by:
© Tibotec, Inc. 2008
Issued July 2010
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 120 Tablet Label
Each tablet contains
Revised: 07/2010 Physicians Total Care, Inc.
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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