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hydralazine hydrochloride tablet, film coated
DESCRIPTIONHydrALAZINE hydrochloride, USP, is an antihypertensive, for oral administration. Its chemical name is 1-hydrazinophthalazine monohydrochloride, and its structural formula is:
HydrALAZINE hydrochloride, USP is a white to off-white, odorless crystalline powder. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, and very slightly soluble in ether. It melts at about 275with decomposition, and has a molecular weight of 196.64.
INACTIVE INGREDIENTEach tablet for oral administration contains 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, or 100 mg HydrALAZINE hydrochloride, USP. Tablets also contain FD&C Red #40/Allura Red AC Aluminum Lake, hypromellose, lactose anhydrous, light mineral oil, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, sodium lauryl sulfate, and titanium dioxide.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGYAlthough the precise mechanism of action of HydrALAZINE is not fully understood, the major effects are on the cardiovascular system. HydrALAZINE apparently lowers blood pressure by exerting a peripheral vasodilating effect through a direct relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. HydrALAZINE, by altering cellular calcium metabolism, interferes with the calcium movements within the vascular smooth muscle that are responsible for initiating or maintaining the contractile state.
WARNINGSIn a few patients HydrALAZINE may produce a clinical picture simulating systemic lupus erythematosus including glomerulonephritis. In such patients HydrALAZINE should be discontinued unless the benefit-to-risk determination requires continued antihypertensive therapy with this drug.
Symptoms and signs usually regress when the drug is discontinued but residua have been detected many years later. Long-term treatment with steroids may be necessary. (SeePRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests.)
Myocardial stimulation produced by HydrALAZINE can cause anginal attacks and ECG changes of myocardial ischemia. The drug has been implicated in the production of myocardial infarction. It must, therefore, be used with caution in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Thehyperdynamiccirculation caused by HydrALAZINE may accentuate specific cardiovascular inadequacies. For example, HydrALAZINE may increase pulmonary artery pressure in patients with mitral valvular disease. The drug may reduce the pressor responses to epinephrine. Postural hypotension may result from HydrALAZINE but is less common than with ganglionic blocking agents. It should be used with caution in patients with cerebral vascular accidents.
In hypertensive patients with normal kidneys who are treated with HydrALAZINE, there is evidence of increased renal blood flow and a maintenance of glomerular filtration rate. In some instances where control values were below normal, improved renal function has been noted after administration of HydrALAZINE. However, as with any antihypertensive agent, HydrALAZINE should be used with caution in patients with advanced renal damage.
Peripheral neuritis, evidenced by paresthesia, numbness, and tingling, has been observed. Published evidence suggests an antipyridoxine effect, and that pyridoxine should be added to the regimen if symptoms develop.
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTSPatients should be informed of possible side effects and advised to take the medication regularly and continuously as directed.
LABORATORY TESTSComplete blood counts and antinuclear antibody titer determinations are indicated before and periodically during prolonged therapy with HydrALAZINE even though the patient is asymptomatic. These studies are also indicated if the patient develops arthralgia, fever, chest pain, continued malaise, or other unexplained signs or symptoms.
A positive antinuclear antibody titer requires that the physician carefully weigh the implications of the test results against the benefits to be derived from antihypertensive therapy with HydrALAZINE.
Blood dyscrasias, consisting of reduction in hemoglobin and red cell count, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, and purpura, have been reported. If such abnormalities develop, therapy should be discontinued.
DRUG INTERACTIONSMAO inhibitors should be used with caution in patients receiving HydrALAZINE.
When other potent parenteral antihypertensive drugs, such as diazoxide, are used in combination with HydrALAZINE, patients should be continuously observed for several hours for any excessive fall in blood pressure. Profound hypotensive episodes may occur when diazoxide injection and HydrALAZINE are used concomitantly.
Administration of HydrALAZINE with food results in higher plasma levels.
CARCINOGENESIS & MUTAGENESIS & IMPAIRMENT OF FERTILITYCarcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a lifetime study in Swiss albino mice, there was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of lung tumors (adenomas and adenocarcinomas) of both male and female mice given HydrALAZINE continuously in their drinking water at a dosage of about 250 mg/kg per day (about 80 times the maximum recommended human dose). In a 2-year carcinogenicity study of rats given HydrALAZINE by gavage at dose levels of 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg/day (approximately 5 to 20 times the recommended human daily dosage), microscopic examination of the liver revealed a small, but statistically significant, increase in benign neoplastic nodules in male and female rats from the high-dose group and in female rats from the intermediate-dose group. Benign interstitial cell tumors of the testes were also significantly increased in male rats from the high-dose group. The tumors observed are common in aged rats and a significantly increased incidence was not observed until 18 months of treatment. HydrALAZINE was shown to be mutagenic in bacterial systems (Gene Mutation and DNA Repair) and in one of two rats and one rabbit hepatocyte in vitro DNA repair studies. Additional in vivo and in vitro studies using lymphoma cells, germinal cells, and fibroblasts from mice, bone marrow cells from Chinese hamsters and fibroblasts from human cell lines did not demonstrate any mutagenic potential for HydrALAZINE.
The extent to which these findings indicate a risk to man is uncertain. While long-term clinical observation has not suggested that human cancer is associated with HydrALAZINE use, epidemiologic studies have so far been insufficient to arrive at any conclusions.
PREGNANCYAnimal studies indicate that HydrALAZINE is teratogenic in mice at 20 to 30 times the maximum daily human dose of 200 to 300 mg and possibly in rabbits at 10 to15 times the maximum daily human dose, but that it is nonteratogenic in rats. Teratogenic effects observed were cleft palate and malformations of facial and cranial bones.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Although clinical experience does not include any positive evidence of adverse effects on the human fetus, HydrALAZINE should be used during pregnancy only if the expected benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
NURSING MOTHERSIt is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when HydrALAZINE is administered to a nursing woman.
PEDIATRIC USESafety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established in controlled clinical trials, although there is experience with the use of HydrALAZINE in pediatric patients. The usual recommended oral starting dosage is 0.75 mg/kg of body weight daily in four divided doses. Dosage may be increased gradually over the next 3 to 4 weeks to a maximum of 7.5 mg/kg or 200 mg daily.
ADVERSE REACTIONSAdverse reactions with HydrALAZINE are usually reversible when dosage is reduced. However, in some cases it may be necessary to discontinue the drug. The following adverse reactions have been observed, but there has not been enough systematic collection of data to support an estimate of their frequency.
Common: Headache, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, palpitations, tachycardia, angina pectoris.
Less Frequent:Digestive: constipation, paralytic ileus.
Cardiovascular: hypotension, paradoxical pressor response, edema.
Genitourinary: difficulty in urination.
Hypersensitive Reactions: rash, urticaria, pruritus, fever, chills, arthralgia, eosinophilia, and rarely, hepatitis.
Other: nasal congestion, flushing, lacrimation, conjunctivitis.
Acute Toxicity: No deaths due to acute poisoning have been reported. Highest known dose survived: adults, 10 g orally.
Oral LD50 in rats: 173 and 187 mg/kg.
Signs and Symptoms: Signs and symptoms of overdosage include hypotension, tachycardia, headache, and generalized skin flushing.
Complications can include myocardial ischemia and subsequent myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmia, and profound shock.
Treatment: There is no specific antidote.
The gastric contents should be evacuated, taking adequate precautions against aspiration and for protection of the airway. An activated charcoal slurry may be instilled if conditions permit. These manipulations may have to be omitted or carried out after cardiovascular status has been stabilized, since they might precipitate cardiac arrhythmias or increase the depth of shock.
Support of the cardiovascular system is of primary importance. Shock should be treated with plasma expanders. If possible, vasopressors should not be given, but if a vasopressor is required, care should be taken not to precipitate or aggravate cardiac arrhythmia.
Tachycardia responds to beta blockers. Digitalization may be necessary, and renal function should be monitored and supported as required.
No experience has been reported with extracorporeal or peritoneal dialysis.
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION
The incidence of toxic reactions, particularly the L.E. cell syndrome, is high in the group of patients receiving large doses of HydrALAZINE.
In a few resistant patients, up to 300 mg of HydrALAZINE daily may be required for a significant antihypertensive effect. In such cases, a lower dosage of HydrALAZINE combined with a thiazide and/or reserpine or a beta blocker may be considered.
However, when combining therapy, individual titration is essential to ensure the lowest possible therapeutic dose of each drug.
HOW SUPPLIEDHydrALAZINE Hydrochloride Tablets, USP
10 mground, convex, pink film coated tablet engraved with HP above 1 on one side and plain on the other side
NDC 23155-001-01 Bottles of 100 w/ CRC
NDC 23155-001-10 Bottles of 1000
25 mground, convex, pink film coated tablet engraved with HP above 2 on one side and plain on the other side
NDC 23155-002-01 Bottles of 100 w/ CRC
NDC 23155-002-10 Bottles of 1000
50 mground, convex, pink film coated tablet engraved with HP above 3 on one side and plain on the other side
NDC 23155-003-01 Bottles of 100 w/ CRC
NDC 23155-003-10 Bottles of 1000
100 mground, convex, pink film coated tablet engraved with HP above 4 on one side and plain on the other side
NDC 23155-004-01 Bottles of 100 w/ CRC
NDC 23155-004-10 Bottles of 1000
STORAGE AND HANDLINGDispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.
Store at 20(68[See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
Amneal Pharmaceuticals, L.L.C.
Paterson, NJ 07504
Heritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Edison, NJ 08837
PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL SECTIONDRUG: Hydralazine Hydrochloride
GENERIC: Hydralazine Hydrochloride
DOSAGE: TABLET, FILM COATED
SCORE: No score
SIZE: 8 mm
Revised: 04/2011 REMEDYREPACK INC.
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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