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calcium chloride dihydrate,
magnesium chloride hexahydrate,
potassium chloride and
sodium chloride injection, solution
Baxter’s Cardioplegic Solution is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, essentially isotonic, formulation of electrolytes in Water for Injection, USP. It is a “core solution” intended for use only after addition of sodium bicarbonate to adjust pH prior to administration. After buffering with sodium bicarbonate it is suitable for cardiac instillation (usually with hypothermia) to induce arrest during open heart surgery. Other agents may be added to the solution prior to instillation. (See INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE).
Each 100 mL of solution contains Calcium Chloride Dihydrate USP 17.6 mg, Magnesium Chloride, Hexahydrate USP 325.3 mg, Potassium Chloride USP 119.3 mg, and Sodium Chloride USP 643 mg, in Water for Injection, USP. May contain HCl and/or NaOH for pH adjustment. Electrolyte content per liter (not including ions for pH adjustment): Sodium (Na+) 110 mEq; Magnesium (Mg++) 32 mEq; Potassium (K+) 16 mEq; Calcium (Ca++) 2.4 mEq; Chloride (Cl-) 160 mEq. Osmolar concentration, 304 mOsmol/liter (calc.); pH 3.8 (3.5 - 3.9) prior to sodium bicarbonate addition.
It is required that 10 mL (840 mg) of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP (10 mEq each of sodium and bicarbonate) be added aseptically and thoroughly mixed with each 1000 mL of cardioplegic solution to adjust pH. Use 10 mL of Abbott1 List 4900, 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP, to achieve the approximate pH of 7.8 when measured at room temperature. Use of any other Sodium Bicarbonate Injection may not achieve this pH due to the varying pH’s of Sodium Bicarbonate Injections. Due to its inherent instability with other components, sodium bicarbonate must be added just prior to administration. After this addition, the solution must be stored under refrigeration and be used within 24 hours. The buffered admixture contains the following electrolytes (per liter): Na+ 120 mEq, Mg++ 32 mEq, K+ 16 mEq, Ca++ 2.4 mEq, Cl- 160 mEq and bicarbonate (HCO3-) 10 mEq; osmolar concentration, 324 mOsmol/liter (calc.); pH 7.8 (approx.). If other agents are added, these values may be altered. The solution contains no bacteriostat, or antimicrobial agent and is intended only for use (after adjusting pH with sodium bicarbonate) in a single operative procedure. When smaller amounts are required, the unused portion should be discarded. Cardioplegic solution with added sodium bicarbonate used as a coronary artery infusate induces cardiac arrest, combats ischemic ionic disturbances, buffers ischemic acidosis and protects energy sources for functional recovery after ischemia.
The flexible plastic container is fabricated from a specially formulated polyvinylchloride. Water can permeate from inside the container into the overwrap but not in amounts sufficient to effect the solution significantly. Solutions inside the plastic container also can leach out certain of its chemical components in very small amounts before the expiration period is attained. However, the safety of the plastic has been confirmed by tests in animals according to USP biological standards for plastic containers.
Cardioplegic solution with added sodium bicarbonate when cooled and instilled into the coronary artery vasculature, causes prompt arrest of cardiac electromechanical activity, combats intracellular ion losses and buffers ischemic acidosis. When used with hypothermia and ischemia, the action may be characterized as cold ischemic potassium-induced cardioplegia.
Magnesium (Mg++) ion may help stabilize the myocardial membrane by inhibiting a myosin phosphorylase, which protects adenosine triphosphate (ATP) reserves for postischemic activity. The protective effects of magnesium and potassium have been shown to be additive.
Potassium (K+) ion concentration is responsible for prompt cessation of mechanical myocardial contractile activity. The immediacy of the arrest thus preserves energy supplies for postischemic contractile activity in diastole.
The chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) ions have no specific role in the production of cardiac arrest. Sodium is essential to maintain ionic integrity of myocardial tissue. The chloride ions are present to maintain the electroneutrality of the solution.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
This solution should be used only by those trained to perform open heart surgery. This solution is intended only for use during cardiopulmonary bypass when the coronary circulation is isolated from the systemic circulation. (See INDICATIONS AND USAGE).
Do not instill the solution into the coronary vasculature unless sodium bicarbonate has been added. If large volumes of cardioplegic solution are infused and allowed to return to the heart lung machine without any venting from the right heart, then plasma magnesium and potassium levels may rise. Development of severe hypotension and metabolic acidosis while on bypass has been reported when large volumes (8 to 10 liters) of solution are instilled and allowed to enter the pump and then the systemic circulation. Right heart venting is therefore recommended. The buffered solution with added sodium bicarbonate should be cooled to 4°C prior to administration and used within 24 hours of mixing.
Additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist, if available. When introducing additives, use aseptic technique, mix thoroughly and do not store. (See INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE).
Pregnancy Category C:
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Cardioplegic Solution. It is also not known whether this solution can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.
Clinical studies of cardioplegic solution did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they responded differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between older and younger patients.
In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosage range reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease.
Intraoperative and perioperative potential hazards of open heart surgery include myocardial infarction, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation. Spontaneous recovery after cardioplegic cardiac arrest may be delayed or absent when circulation is restored. Defibrillation by electric shock may be required to restore normal cardiac function.
Overzealous instillation of the solution may result in unnecessary dilatation of the myocardial vasculature and leakage into the perivascular myocardium, possibly causing tissue edema. See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The following information is suggested as a guide and is subject to variation according to the preference and experience of the surgeon. It is required that 10 mL (840 mg) of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP (10 mEq each of sodium and bicarbonate) be added aseptically and thoroughly mixed with each 1000 mL of cardioplegic solution to adjust pH. Use 10 mL of Abbott1 List 4900, 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP, to achieve the approximate pH of 7.8 when measured at room temperature. Use of any other Sodium Bicarbonate Injection may not achieve this pH due to the varying pH’s of Sodium Bicarbonate Injections. Due to its inherent instability with other components, sodium bicarbonate must be added just prior to administration. After this addition, the solution must be stored under refrigeration and used within 24 hours. The solution should be cooled to 4°C prior to use. Following institution of cardiopulmonary bypass at perfusate temperatures of 28° to 30°C, and after cross-clamping of the ascending aorta, the buffered solution is administered by rapid infusion into the aortic root. The initial rate of infusion may be 300 mL/m2/minute (about 540 mL/min in a 5’ 8”, 70 kg adult with 1.8 square meters of surface area) given for a period of two to four minutes. Concurrent external cooling (regional hypothermia of the pericardium) may be accomplished by instilling a refrigerated (4°C) physiologic solution such as balanced electrolyte replacement solution or Ringer’s Injection into the chest cavity.
Should myocardial electromechanical activity persist or recur, the solution may be reinfused at a rate of 300 mL/m2/min for a period of two minutes. Reinfusion of the solution may be repeated every 20 to 30 minutes or sooner if myocardial temperature rises above 15° to 20°C or returning cardiac activity is observed. The regional hypothermia solution around the heart also may be replenished continuously or periodically in order to maintain adequate hypothermia. Suction may be used to remove warmed infusates. An implanted thermistor probe may be used to monitor myocardial temperature.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR USE
Tear outer wrap at notch and remove solution container. If supplemental medication is desired, follow directions below before preparing for administration. Some opacity of the plastic due to moisture absorption during the sterilization process may be observed. This is normal and does not affect the solution quality or safety. The opacity will diminish gradually. To add 10 mL of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP, Abbott List 4900, and other supplemental medication, follow directions below before preparing for administration.
To Add Medication
2. Using aseptic technique and an additive delivery needle of appropriate length, puncture resealable additive port at target area, inner diaphragm and inject. Withdraw needle after injecting medication.
Preparation for Administration:
Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. It is recommended that the product be stored at room temperature (25°C); however, brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.
Revised: 06/2008 Baxter Healthcare Corporation
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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