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ampicillin sodium injection, powder, for solution
----------Ampicillin for Injection, USP
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ampicillin and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP the monosodium salt of [2S-[2α, 5α, 6β(S*)]]-6-[(aminophenylacetyl)amino]-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid, is a synthetic penicillin. It is an antibacterial agent with a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against both penicillin-susceptible Gram-positive organisms and many common Gram-negative pathogens. It has the following structural formula:
The molecular formula is C16H18N3NaO4S, and the molecular weight is 371.39. Ampicillin for Injection, USP contains 2.9 milliequivalents of sodium per 1 gram of drug.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP is supplied in vials equivalent to 10 g of ampicillin. A pharmacy bulk package is a container of a sterile preparation for parenteral use that contains many single doses. The contents are intended for use in a pharmacy admixture service and are restricted to the preparation of admixtures for intravenous infusion (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Directions for Proper Use of PHARMACY BULK PACKAGE).
Ampicillin diffuses readily into most body tissues and fluids. However, penetration into the cerebrospinal fluid and brain occurs only when the meninges are inflamed. Ampicillin is excreted largely unchanged in the urine and its excretion can be delayed by concurrent administration of probenecid. The active form appears in the bile in higher concentrations than those found in serum. Ampicillin is the least serum-bound of all the penicillins, averaging about 20% compared to approximately 60 to 90% for other penicillins. Ampicillin is well tolerated by most patients and has been given in doses of 2 grams daily for many weeks without adverse reactions.
Microbiology: While in vitro studies have demonstrated the susceptibility of most strains of the following organisms, clinical efficacy for infections other than those included in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section has not been demonstrated.
The following bacteria have been shown in in vitro studies to be susceptible to ampicillin:
GRAM-POSITIVE ORGANISMS: Hemolytic and nonhemolytic streptococci, D. pneumoniae, non-penicillinase-producing staphylococci, Clostridia spp., B. anthracis, Listeria monocytogenes, and most strains of enterococci.
GRAM-NEGATIVE ORGANISMS: H. influenzae, N. gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Proteus mirabilis, and many strains of Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli.
Ampicillin does not resist destruction by penicillinase.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ampicillin and other antibacterial drugs, Ampicillin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Ampicillin is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the conditions listed below:
Respiratory Tract Infections caused by S. pneumoniae (formerly D. pneumoniae), Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing), H. influenzae and Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Bacterial Meningitis caused by E. coli, Group B Streptococci, and other Gram-negative bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, N. meningitidis). The addition of an aminoglycoside with ampicillin may increase its effectiveness against Gram-negative bacteria.
Septicemia and Endocarditis caused by susceptible Gram-positive organisms including Streptococcus spp., penicillin-G-susceptible staphylococci and enterococci. Gram-negative sepsis caused by E. coli, Proteus mirabilis and Salmonella spp. respond to ampicillin. Endocarditis due to enterococcal strains usually respond to intravenous therapy. The addition of an aminoglycoside may enhance the effectiveness of ampicillin when treating streptococcal endocarditis.
Urinary Tract Infections caused by sensitive strains of E. coli and Proteus mirabilis.
Gastrointestinal Infections caused by Salmonella typhosa (typhoid fever), other Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. (dysentery) usually respond to oral or intravenous therapy.
Bacteriology studies to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to ampicillin should be performed. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing.
It is advisable to reserve the parenteral form of this drug for moderately severe and severe infections and for patients who are unable to take the oral forms. A change to oral ampicillin may be made as soon as appropriate.
Indicated surgical procedures should be performed.
A history of a previous hypersensitivity reaction to any of the penicillins is a contraindication.
Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactoid) reactions have been reported in patients on penicillin therapy. Although anaphylaxis is more frequent following parenteral therapy, it has occurred in patients on oral penicillins. These reactions are more apt to occur in individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity and/or a history of sensitivity to multiple allergens.
There have been well-documented reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity reactions who have experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions when treated with a cephalosporin. Before initiating therapy with a penicillin, careful inquiry should be made concerning previous hypersensitivity reactions to penicillins, cephalosporins, and other allergens. If an allergic reaction occurs, the drug should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
SERIOUS ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS REQUIRE IMMEDIATE EMERGENCY TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE, OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS STEROIDS, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, INCLUDING INTUBATION, SHOULD ALSO BE ADMINISTERED AS INDICATED.
General: Prescribing Ampicillin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
The possibility of superinfections with mycotic organisms or bacterial pathogens should be kept in mind during therapy. In such cases, discontinue the drug and substitute appropriate treatment.
A high percentage (43 to 100 percent) of patients with infectious mononucleosis who receive ampicillin develop a skin rash. Typically, the rash appears 7 to 10 days after the start of oral ampicillin therapy and remains for a few days to a week after the drug is discontinued. In most cases, the rash is maculopapular; pruritic and generalized. Therefore, the administration of ampicillin is not recommended in patients with mononucleosis. It is not known whether these patients are truly allergic to ampicillin.
Information for Patients: Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Ampicillin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Ampicillin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Ampicillin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Laboratory Tests: As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system function, including renal, hepatic and hematopoietic, should be made during prolonged therapy.
Transient elevation of serum transaminase has been observed following administration of ampicillin. The significance of this finding is not known.
Drug Interactions: The concurrent administration of allopurinol and ampicillin increases substantially the incidence of skin rashes in patients receiving both drugs as compared to patients receiving ampicillin alone. It is not known whether this potentiation of ampicillin rashes is due to allopurinol or the hyperuricemia present in these patients.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: With high urine concentrations of ampicillin, false-positive glucose reactions may occur if Clinitest, Benedict's Solution, or Fehling's Solution are used. Therefore, it is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix or Tes-Tape) be used.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis and Impairment of Fertility: No long-term animal studies have been conducted with this drug.
Pregnancy category B: Reproduction studies have been performed in laboratory animals at doses several times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of adverse effects due to ampicillin. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery: Oral ampicillin-class antibiotics are poorly absorbed during labor. Studies in guinea pigs showed that intravenous administration of ampicillin slightly decreased the uterine tone and frequency of contractions, but moderately increased the height and duration of contractions. However, it is not known whether use of these drugs in humans during labor or delivery has immediate or delayed adverse effects on the fetus, prolongs the duration of labor, or increases the likelihood that forceps delivery or other obstetrical intervention of resuscitation of the newborn will be necessary.
Nursing Mothers: Ampicillin is excreted in trace amounts in human milk. Therefore, caution should be exercised when ampicillin-class antibiotics are administered to a nursing woman.
Pediatric Use: Guidelines for the administration of these drugs to children are presented in DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
As with other penicillins, it may be expected that untoward reactions will be essentially limited to sensitivity phenomena. They are more likely to occur in individuals who have previously demonstrated hypersensitivity to penicillins and in those with a history of allergy, asthma, hay fever or urticaria.
The following adverse reactions have been reported as associated with the use of ampicillin:
Gastrointestinal: Glossitis, stomatitis, black “hairy” tongue, nausea, vomiting, enterocolitis, pseudomembranous colitis, and diarrhea. (These reactions are usually associated with oral dosage forms.)
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Skin rashes and urticaria have been reported frequently. A few cases of exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme have been reported. Anaphylaxis is the most serious reaction experienced and has usually been associated with the parenteral dosage form.
Note: Urticaria, other skin rashes, and serum sickness-like reactions may be controlled with antihistamines and, if necessary, systemic corticosteroids. Whenever such reactions occur, ampicillin should be discontinued, unless, in the opinion of the physician, the condition being treated is life-threatening and amenable only to ampicillin therapy. Serious anaphylactic reactions require the immediate use of epinephrine, oxygen, and intravenous steroids.
Liver: A moderate rise in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transminase (SGOT) has been noted, particularly in infants, but the significance of this finding is unknown. Mild transitory SGOT elevations have been observed in individuals receiving larger (two to four times) than usual and oft-repeated intramuscular injections. Evidence indicates that glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) is released at the site of intramuscular injection of Ampicillin for Injection and that the presence of increased amounts of this enzyme in the blood does not necessarily indicate liver involvement.
Hemic and Lymphatic Systems: Anemia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, leukopenia, and agranulocytosis have been reported during therapy with the penicillins. These reactions are usually reversible on discontinuation of therapy and are believed to be hypersensitivity phenomena.
In cases of overdose, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures as required. In patients with renal function impairment, ampicillin-class antibiotics can be removed by hemodialysis but not peritoneal dialysis.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
This insert is for the Pharmacy Bulk Package and is intended for preparing IV admixtures only. Dosage recommendations for direct intravenous injection are for informational purposes only.
Infections of the respiratory tract and soft tissues.
Infections of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts (including those caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in females).
Patients weighing less than 40 Kg (88 lbs): 50 mg/Kg/day in equally divided doses at 6-to 8-hour intervals.
In the treatment of chronic urinary tract and intestinal infections, frequent bacteriological and clinical appraisal is necessary. Smaller doses than those recommended above should not be used. Higher doses should be used for stubborn or severe infections. In stubborn infections, therapy may be required for several weeks. It may be necessary to continue clinical and/or bacteriological follow-up for several months after cessation of therapy.
Urethritis in males due to N. gonorrhoeae:
Adults: Two doses of 500 mg each at an interval of 8 to 12 hours.
Treatment may be repeated if necessary or extended if required.
In the treatment of complications of gonorrheal urethritis, such as prostatitis and epididymitis, prolonged and intensive therapy is recommended. Cases of gonorrhea with a suspected primary lesion of syphilis should have darkfield examinations before receiving treatment. In all other cases where concomitant syphilis is suspected, monthly serological tests should be made for a minimum of four months.
The doses for the preceding infections may be given by intravenous route. A change to oral ampicillin may be made when appropriate.
Adults and children: 150 to 200 mg/Kg/day. Start with intravenous administration for at least three days.
Treatment of all infections should be continued for a minimum of 48 to 72 hours beyond the time that the patient becomes asymptomatic or evidence of bacterial eradication has been obtained. A minimum of 10-days treatment is recommended for any infection caused by Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci to help prevent the occurrence of acute rheumatic fever or acute glomerulonephritis.
Directions for Proper Use of Pharmacy Bulk Package
NOT FOR DIRECT INFUSION
The pharmacy bulk package is for use in a Pharmacy Admixture Service only. Using aseptic technique, the closure should be penetrated only one time after reconstitution using a suitable sterile dispensing set; which allows measured dispensing of the contents.
Use of syringe and needle is not recommended as it may cause leakage. The withdrawal of container contents should be accomplished without delay. The entire content of the vial should be dispensed within 1 hour of initial entry.
Add 94 mL Sterile Water for Injection, USP. The resulting solution will contain 100 mg ampicillin activity per mL, and is stable for up to one hour at room temperature. Dilute further within one hour to a concentration of 5 mg to 10 mg per mL. See Table below for suitable fluid. Use promptly.
For ease of dispensing, invert reconstituted vial and hang by a bail band in a laminar flow hood. Dispense aliquots from the vial into infusion fluids using a suitable sterile dispensing device.
Protect reconstituted solution from freezing.
For Administration by Intravenous Infusion: Reconstitute as directed above (Directions for Proper Use of Pharmacy Bulk Package) prior to diluting with intravenous solution.
IMPORTANT: The following chemical stability information in no way indicates that it would be acceptable practice to use this product well after the preparation time. Good professional practice suggests that compounded admixtures should be administered as soon after preparation as is feasible.
Stability studies on Ampicillin for Injection of concentrations in various solutions indicate the drug will lose less than 10% activity at the temperatures noted for the time periods stated.
Only those solutions listed above should be used for the intravenous infusion of Ampicillin. The concentrations should fall within the range specified. The drug concentration and the rate and volume of the infusion should be adjusted so that the total dose of ampicillin is administered before the drug loses its stability in the solution in use.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Ampicillin for Injection, USP equivalent to 10 grams ampicillin as the sodium salt per Pharmacy Bulk Package vial is supplied as follows:
Ampicillin for Injection, USP equivalent to 250 mg, 500 mg, 1 or 2 grams ampicillin as the sodium salt per vial, is also available, and is supplied as follows:
Store dry powder at 20˚ to 25˚C (68˚ to 77˚F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]
Mfd. for SAGENT Pharmaceuticals
PACKAGE LABEL – PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – VIAL LABEL
PROFESSIONAL SAMPLE – NOT FOR SALE
Ampicillin for Injection, USP 10 g Pharmacy Bulk Package
PACKAGE LABEL – PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – CARTON
PROFESSIONAL SAMPLE – NOT FOR SALE
Ampicillin for Injection, USP 10 g Pharmacy Bulk Package
Revised: 05/2010 Sagent Pharmaceuticals
Reproduced with permission of U.S. National Library of Medicine
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